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HISTORY, TECHNOLOGY, AND ART 



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no. 4 



MONOGRAPH 4 












The Influence of 

Ottoman Turkish Textiles 

and Costume 

in Eastern Europe 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Royal Ontario Museum 



http://archive.org/details/influenceofottomOOgerv 



The Influence of 
Ottoman Turkish Textiles 
and Costume 
in Eastern Europe 

with particular reference to Hungary 



History, Technology, and Art 

Monograph 4 



The Influence of 
Ottoman Turkish Textiles 
and Costume 
in Eastern Europe 

with particular reference to Hungary 



Veronika Gervers 



Royal Ontario Museum 
Publication date: 5 October 1982 
Suggested citation: ROM HTA Monogr. 



Royal Ontario Museum 

Publications in History, Technology, and Art 

The Royal Ontario Museum publishes two series in the fields of history, technology, and art: 
Monographs, a numbered series of original publications, and Papers, a numbered series of 
primarily shorter original publications. All manuscripts considered for publication are subject to 
the scrutiny and editorial policies of the Art and Archaeology Editorial Board, and may be 
subject to review by persons outside the museum staff who are authorities in the particular field 
involved. 

Royal Ontario Museum 
Art and Archaeology Editorial Board 
Chairman/Editor: A. J. Mills 
Associate Editor: E. J. Keall 
Associate Editor: M. Allodi 



The late Dr. Veronika Gervers was Associate Curator in the Textile Department of the Royal 
Ontario Museum. 



Cover: Detail of an embroidered cover. Turkish. 17th century. See Figures 32 and 33. 



Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data 

Gervers, Veronika, 1939-1979. 

The influence of Ottoman Turkish textiles and costume in 
Eastern Europe 

(History, technology and art. Monograph, ISSN 0316-1269 ; 4) 
Bibliography: p. 
ISBN 0-88854-258-5 

1. Textile fabrics — Europe, Eastern — Turkish influences. 

2. Textile fabrics, Islamic — Europe, Eastern — History. 

3. Costume — Europe, Eastern — Turkish influences. 

4. Costume — Europe, Eastern — History. I. Royal Ontario 
Museum. II. Title. III. Series. 



NK8866.A1G47 



746'. 09563 



C82-094845-4 




© The Royal Ontario Museum, 1982 

100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Canada M5S 2C6 

Printed and bound in Canada at the Alger Press 



r > 



IV 



To 
Janossy Kornelia, Csontos Gyulane 



Contents 



List of figures ix 

Preface xiii 

Acknowledgements xiv 

Introduction 1 

Trade 3 

Garments 12 

Embroidery 19 

Carpets 23 

Postscript 33 

Notes 34 

Appendix 1: A chronological outline of the rise and 
decline of the Ottoman Turkish Empire in central 

and eastern Europe 48 

Appendix 2: Rulers of the House of Osman 53 

Appendix 3: Rulers of Hungary and Transylvania 54 

Appendix 4: A select bibliography for the political, 

social, and economic history of European Turkey 56 

Appendix 5: Turks and Hungarians: Editions of 15th- 
to 18th- century sources from Hungary and Trans- 
ylvania 58 

Appendix 6: Turkish and oriental fabrics used in 
Hungary and Transylvania from the 15th through 

the 18th century 59 

Glossary 65 

Literature Cited 67 

Figures 81 

Costume (Fig. 1-26) 83 

Mosaic work and applied ornaments (Fig. 27-31) 107 

Domestic embroidery (Fig. 32-58) 113 

Funerary portraits (Fig. 59-61) 141 

Flat-woven rugs (Fig. 62-70) 143 

Towels with woven ornaments (Fig. 71-85) 153 



vn 



List of Figures 

(pages 81-168) 



1. Funerary portrait of Prince Ieremia Movila (1596-1606). Romania: 
Moldavia. 1606. 

2. Woman's costume. Bulgaria, ca. 1925. 

3. Woman's festive jacket with open sleeves. Albania. Mid-19th century. 

4. Woman's sleeveless festive jacket. Albania. Mid-19th century. 

5. Detail of Figure 4. 

6. Woman's sleeveless festive jacket. Albania, Greece, or Yugoslavia. 
Mid-19th century. 

7. Woman's festive costume with two sleeveless jackets. Greece: Attica. 
Mid-19th century. 

8. Woman's festive costume. Greek. Albania: northern Epirus. Mid-19th 
century. 

9. Woman's sleeveless jacket. Greece: Macedonia or Thrace. 20th century. 

10. Woman's sleeveless jacket. Yugoslavia: Serbia, near Pozarevac. Early 
20th century. 

11. Woman's jacket. Yugoslavia: Debar region, Macedonia. Late 19th 
century. 

12. Back of Figure 11. 

13. Detail of Figure 11. 

14. Woman's costume. Romania: Craiova region, Wallachia. Late 19th 
century. 

15. Woman's costume. Bulgarian. Romania: village of Puntea de Greci, 
Wallachia. Late 19th century. 

16. Woman's costume. Yugoslavia: Posavina area, Croatia. Late 19th or 
early 20th century. 

17. Woman's costume. Yugoslavia: Posavina area, Croatia. 1960s. 
18 and 19. Man's leather coat, details. Turkish, ca. 1500. 

20. Woman's sheepskin jacket. Transylvanian Saxonian. Romania: 
Beszterce (Bistrita) region, Transylvania. Early 20th century. 

21. Woman's sheepskin jacket. Yugoslavia: village of Dakovo, Slovenia, 
ca. 1900. 

22. Back of Figure 21. 

23. Woman's sheepskin jacket. Hungarian. Romania: Kolozs(Cluj) county, 
Transylvania. Last quarter of 19th century. 

24. Back of Figure 23. 

25. Fragment of a sprang sash. Turkish (?). Mid-17th century. 

26. Sprang sash. Turkish (?). Mid-17th century. 

ix 



27. Tent. Turkish. 17th century. 

28. Interior of Figure 27. 

29. Prayer carpet. Part of a Turkish booty. 17th century. 
30 and 31. Details of Figure 29. 

32. Embroidered cover. Turkish. 17th century. 

33. Detail of Figure 32. 

34. Embroidered cover, detail. Turkish. Late 16th to 17th century. 

35. Embroidered sheet end. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

36. Embroidered sheet end. Hungary. Second half of 17th century. 

37. Embroidered altar cover, detail. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

38. Embroidered altar cover, detail. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

39. Embroidered towel. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

40. Embroidered cover, detail. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

41. Detail of a woman's kaftan-type coat. Turkey: vicinity of Istanbul. Late 
18th to early 19th century. 

42. Embroidered towel. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

43. Embroidered towel, detail. Turkey. First half of 18th century. 

44. Embroidered towel, detail. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

45. End of an embroidered sash. Turkey. Late 18th to early 19th century. 

46. Embroidery patterns of Julia Redei. Hungarian. Romania: Transyl- 
vania. Early 18th century. 

47. Ornaments of 17th-century Hungarian embroideries. 

48. Woman's chemise, detail of embroidered sleeve. Greece: Island of 
Skyros. 18th century. 

49. Embroidered towel. Turkey. First half of 18th century. 

50. Embroidered towel, detail. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

51. Embroidered towel end. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

52. Detail of an embroidered towel. Turkey. First half of 19th century. 

53. Ornaments of 17th-century Hungarian embroideries. 

54. Embroidered pillow end. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

55. Cover for the "Lord's Table" in a Calvinist church. Hungary. Mid-17th 
century. 

56. Embroidered cover for the "Lord's Table" in a Calvinist church. 
Hungary: city of Miskolc, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen county. 17th cen- 
tury. 

57. Embroidered cushion cover. Greece: Island of Naxos. 17th or 18th 
century. 

58. Detail of Figure 57. 

59. Funerary picture of Count Gaspar Illeshazy. Hungary. 1648. 

60. Funerary picture of Countess Illeshazy. Hungary. 1648. 

61. Funerary picture of Count Gabriel Illeshazy. Hungary. 1662. 



62. Tapestry- woven rug. Romania: Wallachia. ca. 1900. 
63 and 64. Details of Figure 62. 

65. Tapestry-woven rug. Romania: Oltenia. Late 19th century. 

66. Details of Figure 65. 

67. Tapestry-woven rug. Ukrainian. U.S.S.R.: Bucovina. Early 20th 
century. 

68. Tapestry-woven rug. Romanian. U.S.S.R.: Bessarabia. Late 19th 
century. 

69. Tapestry-woven rug. Romanian. U.S.S.R.: Bessarabia. Late 19th 
century. 

70. Tapestry- woven shoulder bag. Greece: Peloponnesus. Early 20th 
century. 

71. Ornamental towels (makramas). Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal 
islands. Late 19th to early 20th century. 

72. Ornamental towels {makramas). Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal 
islands. Late 19th to early 20th century. 

73. Ornamental towels (makramas). Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal 
islands. Late 19th to early 20th century. 

74. Ornamental towel. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Late 
19th century. 

75. Ornamental towels (makramas). Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal 
islands. Early 20th century. 

76. Ornamental towels. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Early 
20th century. 

77. Ornamental towels. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Early 
20th century. 

78. Ornamental towel. Romania: village of Prodanesti, Transylvania. Late 
19th century. 

79. Ornamental towel. Romania: village of Rastolnija, Transylvania. Late 
19th century. 

80. Ornamental towel. Romania: village of Rastolnita, Transylvania. Late 
19th century. 

81. Ornamental towel. Romania: village of Buru, Transylvania. Late 19th 
century. 

82. Ornamental towel. Romania: village of Buru, Transylvania. Late 19th 
century. 

83. Ornamental towel. Hungarian. Romania: town of Szek, Transylvania. 
Late 19th century. 

84. Interior of the church of Voronet. Romania: northern Moldavia 
(Bucovina). 

85. Interior of a peasant house from Vistea. Romania: Transylvania. First 
half of 20th century. 



XI 



Preface 



This monograph is a considerably enlarged version of an essay presented at 
the symposium on "Islam and the Balkans" organized in connection with 
the World of Islam Festival in July 1976 at the Royal Scottish Museum in 
Edinburgh. The influence of Ottoman embroideries in European Turkey was 
also discussed in a lecture at the Midwest Slavic Conference in Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, in May 1977. 

The purpose of the monograph is to discuss the Ottoman influence on 
textiles and costume in European Turkey. The illustrative material provides 
a context for the discussion but is not necessarily referred to specifically in 
the text. The introductory notes to some picture- groups and the extended 
captions are intended as further historical and ethnographical evidence for 
the great impact that Turkish textiles had in the area under discussion. Most 
of the illustrations have been selected from the rich resources of the Royal 
Ontario Museum. All line drawings are by the author. 

Since the significance of Ottoman textiles in European Turkey cannot be 
fully understood without some knowledge of the history of the period, I 
have included, in Appendices 1 to 3, a chronology of political history and a 
reference to the reigns of Turkish and Hungarian rulers from the 14th to 
early 20th century. 

Appendix 4 provides a bibliography of works on the political and 
socio-economic history of the territory. Although these works were used in 
tracing the developments of Ottoman trade and in interpreting its historical 
background, they are not specifically cited in the notes. These notes contain 
an extensive discussion of the textiles themselves, and full bibliographic 
references to all publications and manuscripts referred to in them are given 
in the section "Literature Cited". 

The numerous quotations from Hungarian sources from the 16th to the 
18th century were translated from the original Hungarian or Latin by the 
author and are presented here for the first time in English. Appendix 5 
provides a summary of the most important published Hungarian source 
materials from the Ottoman Turkish period. Appendix 6 contains a detailed 
list of historical and ethnographical material concerning the names of 
Turkish fabrics used in Hungary and Transylvania, and an edited translation 
of a late-17th-century inventory of the full stock from the shop of a Greek 
merchant who traded in textiles in Upper Hungary. 

Whenever possible, foreign words and expressions have been explained 
at their first occurrence. Information about others which are not so described 
is given in a brief glossary. 

Except when otherwise stated within the context of a quotation, modern 
terms and spellings are generally used for place names; older and more 
conventionally known names appear in brackets. For historical reasons, and 
in order to avoid confusion, Hungarian names are kept for most formerly 
Hungarian places which are now to be found outside the political 

xiii 



boundaries of that country. At the first occurrence of each such place name, 
the modern and/or German names are added in brackets. 

The textile terminology used is based largely on the English version of the 
textile vocabulary of the Centre International d'Etudes des Textiles Anciens 
(ed. Harold B. Burnham, Lyon, 1964). Ottoman Turkish words have been 
transliterated into modern Turkish. 



Acknowledgements 

My interest in the historical components of eastern European textiles and 
costume has over the past fifteen years brought me into contact with many 
colleagues in Europe and North America. I should like here to express my 
indebtedness to all those who in various ways assisted my study of the 
material. Among them, I am particularly grateful to Mrs. Joan Allgrove, 
Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester; M. Nicolae Beldiceanu, University of 
Paris; Dr. Ida Bobrovszky, Institute of Art History, Hungarian Academy of 
Sciences, Budapest; Mrs. Katharine B. Brett, Royal Ontario Museum, 
Toronto; Mr. Charles Grant Ellis, Textile Museum, Washington, D.C.; Mme 
Monique Roussel de Fontanes, Musee de l'Homme, Paris; Dr. Terezia 
Horvath, Hungarian Ethnographical Museum, Budapest; Mrs. Pauline 
Johnstone, Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Dr. Edward J. Keall, Royal 
Ontario Museum, Toronto; Mr. Donald King, Victoria and Albert Museum, 
London; Dr. K^roly Kos, Ethnographical Museum of Transylvania, 
Kolozsv^r (Cluj-Napoca); Dr. Maria Kresz, Hungarian Ethnographical 
Museum, Budapest; Mrs. Jelena Lazic, Ethnographical Museum, Belgrade; 
Miss Louise W. Mackie, Textile Museum, Washington; the late Mme Corina 
Nicolescu, University of Bucharest; Miss Jennifer Scarce, Royal Scottish 
Museum, Edinburgh; Mme Elena Secosan, Bucharest; Mr. John Vollmer, 
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto; and Frau Dr. Eva Zimmermann, Badisches 
Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe. 

I am also indebted to the late Gertrud Palotay, whose work on the 
Ottoman Turkish elements of Hungarian embroideries has served as an 
inspiration for my research since my undergraduate years. 

Very special thanks are due to my father, Jozsef Moln^r, who first aroused 
my interest in the subject through his work on Hungarian needlework and 
through a unique 16th-century Turkish embroidery preserved in the 
Calvinist church of his native village, Csenger (Szabolcs-Szatm^r county, 
Hungary). He also assisted me greatly by verifying quotations from 
Hungarian sources and by finding many useful bibliographical references. 

I should also like to thank those museums where I have been offered 
research facilities whether in the galleries or in the storage rooms. Among 
these the following institutions were particularly helpful: the Benaki 
Museum, Athens; the Ethnographical Museum, Belgrade; the Museum of 
Art, the Museum of Romanian Folk Art, and the Village Museum, 
Bucharest; the Hungarian Ethnographical Museum and the Hungarian 
National Museum, Budapest; the Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago; the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of 

xiv 



Denmark, Copenhagen; the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh; the 
Christian Museum, Esztergom; the Bruckenthal Museum, Hermanstadt 
(Sibiu/Nagyszeben); the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art and Topkapi 
Sarayi Miizesi, Istanbul; Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe; the Ethno- 
graphical Museum of Transylvania, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca); the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, London; the Whitworth Art Gallery, University of 
Manchester, Manchester; the Brooklyn Museum and the Costume Institute 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Musee de l'Homme, Paris; 
the Ethnographical Museum, Skopje; the Textile Museum, Washington, 
D.C.; and the Ethnographical Museum, Zagreb. 

It was thanks to the generous support of the Canada Council that I was 
able to study many of these collections in detail. I am also grateful to the 
French Archaeological Institute in Istanbul and to the British Institutes of 
Archaeology in Ankara and Athens for the facilities provided while working 
in Turkey and Greece. 

Toronto, 11 August 1978 V.G. 



xv 



Introduction 



In cases of adversity Hungarians are wont to say, "A lot more was lost at 
Mohacs." The reference is to the decisive battle of 1526 in which the 
Hungarian army was defeated by the Turks. The disastrous consequences of 
the battle were far-reaching: nearly two-thirds of Hungary was overrun by 
the armies of the Sublime Porte, the last independent king of the country 
was killed, and three years later, in 1529, the Ottoman army reached the 
walls of Vienna for the first time. Only for brief periods since has the country 
been its own master. 

The saying, expressive of the Hungarian attitude towards the Turkish 
occupation, reflects the fear and apprehension that were shared by the 
entire western world in the face of the victorious Ottoman advance. For 
centuries the Turks had been extending their empire westwards. In 1352 
they gained their first footing on European soil. In 1354 they took Gallipoli 
(Gelibolu), in 1365 Edirne (Adrianople), and in 1394 and 1396 Nikopol. By 
1400 most of the Balkan peninsula was under Ottoman rule. The once great 
Byzantine Empire was reduced to its capital city, Constantinople, and the 
area immediately surrounding it. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, 
nothing could withstand the Ottoman advance throughout the rest of the 
Balkans and beyond, until it encompassed also Hungary, many important 
Aegean and Mediterranean islands, and finally the Crimea, the Ukraine, 
and Podolia. Although the Turks failed in their second attempt to take 
Vienna in 1683, it took Europe another two and a half centuries to evict them 
from central and eastern Europe and confine their European domain to the 
present foothold on the western shores of the Bosphorus. 

While this long period of occupation has generally been considered to 
have arrested the progress of eastern Europe, the cultural historian may 
regard it in a different and by no means negative light. In this respect, our 
discussion of the influence of Turkish textiles in European Turkey will 
attempt to show the degree to which this aspect of Turkish culture was 
appreciated by the indigenous non-Moslem population of the occupied and 
tributary lands. Turkish influences, however, cannot always be easily 
traced. The survival of earlier traditions and the concurrent penetration of 
the area by western ideas and styles are also part of the general picture. 

Before the Ottoman conquest the territory that later became European 
Turkey was dominated by two major cultural traditions, the Byzantine and 
the western, and there was an accepted distinction between the lands that 
fell within the sphere of each. Religion, philosophical attitudes, commerce, 
and the arts all reflected this distinction, which in some of its aspects 
survived well into the Ottoman Turkish period. The historical backgrounds 
of these different traditions were further complicated by many layers of 
earlier cultural influences. When interpreting late descendants of Ottoman 
models, particular consideration must be given to the complex oriental styles 
of the Eurasian steppes. Furthermore, a rich variety of as yet undetermined 



influences appears among the fossil-like survivals of indigenous Balkan 
cultures, especially in such remote and isolated areas as Montenegro (Crna 
Gora) and parts of Albania, where even the remnants of prehistoric costume 
can occasionally be traced up to recent times. Certain aspects of textile 
technology may also be derived from roots that are neither Byzantine nor 
western European nor oriental. 

Ottoman Turkish traditions are themselves diversified. The Turkish 
penetration of Europe was a process lasting several hundred years, and the 
major reconquests of the territory took place between the late 17th and early 
20th centuries. Despite the fact that the ethnic composition of the people of 
the Balkans did not change drastically, populations were constantly moving 
over the conquered lands throughout the period. Inhabitants of the 
occupied lands migrated towards the north, the south, and the west in order 
to avoid Turkish overlordship and the added burdens of taxation that went 
with it. Those movements must be considered in the light of the constantly 
changing map of the Ottoman Empire, and of the Sublime Porte's 
ever-changing attitudes towards its non-Moslem subjects. 

During the period of the Ottoman conquests, large numbers of Greeks 
emigrated to foreign lands. In the same period, many Albanians went first to 
Greece, then to Serbia, Bosnians moved to Dalmatia and Serbia, and 
Serbians migrated to Dalmatia, Croatia, and Hungary. A new wave of 
northward migration started at the end of the 17th century when Hungary 
and adjacent territories to the south were liberated from the Turks. The 
recolonization of the Great Hungarian Plain and the Voivodina attracted 
Serbian refugees, Greeks, Macedo-Vlachs, Romanians, Bulgarians, and also 
some settlers from central and western Europe. 

In addition to these major movements from one geographic area to 
another, there was a more localized but nevertheless significant tendency on 
the part of the Christians in the early centuries of the Turkish period to move 
out of the cities. As a result, the rural population increased and at the same 
time kept its national character, while the major centres became more and 
more cosmopolitan. The cities were dominated by the nationalities that had 
economic and political power. 

Besides the movements within the Balkans, population shifts included the 
settlement by the Ottomans of a number of Asiatic peoples throughout the 
provinces of European Turkey. Turks came in large numbers to Constan- 
tinople and its vicinity, to Bessarabia, to the Dobrudja, to Bulgaria, and to 
certain valleys of Thrace and Macedonia. Turkmen, especially Yoriik 
nomads, settled in Macedonia and southern Serbia. Crimean Tatars and 
Caucasian Circassians found new homes in the Dobrudja and Bulgaria. 
Large numbers of Armenians and Jews settled in cities throughout the area. 

It is only when seen in their historical context that the complexities of 
European Turkish culture and society, and consequently of the development 
of textiles and costume, become evident. The object of this monograph is to 
examine the historical, social, and cultural background of textiles and 
costume within the area. Special attention is given to material from the 
earlier centuries of the Ottoman era and to the interpretation of documen- 
tary sources together with existing textiles. 



Trade 



Commercial Developments in European Turkey 1 

From the second half of the 14th century Turkish and oriental goods reached 
the Balkans in considerable quantities through regular trade channels. 
Although the stormy period of the first Ottoman conquests led to constant 
disturbance and insecurity in these lands, a considerable part of the 
commercially inclined Serbian and Bosnian petty middle class accepted 
Islam in order to survive. Their major role as merchants was to transfer the 
precious products of the Orient to Italy and central Europe via the Adriatic 
and overland routes. To some extent Turks also took part in this trade. 2 

The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 marked the beginning of a period 
of stability and economic growth within the Ottoman Empire. From then on, 
the Balkan trade became more settled and more significant. In addition to 
the Adriatic sea route, the Danube and developing overland routes provided 
the trade with increased freedom of movement. Istanbul, the traditional 
meeting place of numerous roads from Asia Minor and the Levant, stood at 
the gateway of the west. From there the main route led to Edirne, where it 
divided into several roads of greater or lesser importance. One reached the 
Danube delta through the Dobrudja and continued into Moldavia and 
Poland. Another, which also served as an important military highway, went 
to Plovdiv, and on to Sofia, Nis, Belgrade, and finally Buda. A third led 
through Salonika and Ochrid to the Adriatic at Durazzo. From 1592 to 1774 
the Black Sea was open to Ottoman ships alone, a situation that gave 
enormous advantages to Turkish trade. Concurrently with the establish- 
ment of trade routes, a sudden rise of urbanization promoted commerce and 
industry. 

In the 15th century the main beneficiaries of Balkan trade were Moslems, 
the inhabitants of the Dalmatian city-ports, Italians, and Jews. 3 From the 
early 16th century, however, the indigenous Orthodox Christian mercantile 
class was revived through favourable new policies of the Ottoman state. 
Turks and Moslems, for whom military and political positions were reserved 
and who also constituted a sizable proportion of the urban artisans, did not 
choose to become deeply involved in international trade. In addition, in the 
16th and 17th centuries — particularly in the latter — large numbers of 
Jewish merchants emigrated to the west because of the economic growth 
and new opportunities in Europe. Thus it is hardly surprising that the 
Balkan towns became increasingly Greek, Slavic, and Albanian, or that 
commerce was controlled by Orthodox Christians. At first, Greek merchants 
were the most influential in Balkan trade. Serbs and Macedo-Vlachs, 
however, soon became keen competitors, and by the 18th century Serbs had 
control of the overland foreign trade between the Bosphorus and Hungary. 
After 1750 the Bulgarians also appeared in international commerce. 

In the 16th and 17th centuries, when the weight of world commerce 



shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, the Levantine trade, partially 
controlled by Balkan merchants, lost its significance for western Europe and 
began to serve more and more the local markets and demands of central and 
eastern Europe. Turkish and oriental goods as a whole were highly desired 
throughout the occupied and tributary lands by all social classes of the 
population, Moslem and non-Moslem alike. Because of the urban devel- 
opments, many Balkan cities became important manufacturing centres for 
certain goods. In Greece and Bulgaria village artisans also produced a 
considerable output. Most products were marketed within European Turkey 
on a local level but specific goods were taken farther afield. 4 

Hungarian sources of the 16th and 17th centuries mention innumerable 
"Turkish" merchants on the Great Plain as well as in the northern and 
western areas of the country. 5 Hungarian merchants in Transylvania and 
northern Hungary regularly acquired and sold Turkish goods. 6 Guild 
regulations issued in 1632 by the merchants of Kassa (Kosice), an important 
trading centre in northern Hungary, stated that members could sell Turkish 
merchandise since both their compatriots and foreigners sought such 
products. It was obviously to the city's advantage to permit such sales if the 
goods were readily available within its walls. 7 

A late 17th-century inventory, taken in the drygoods store of a Greek 
merchant, Demetrios Panduka, in northern Hungary, indicates that over 
ninety per cent of his stock was of Turkish manufacture, although he also 
sold Polish and Hungarian products. This document is especially valuable 
since it dates from the post-Turkish period of Hungary and comes from a 
town that was never occupied by Turks. The demand for Turkish textiles in 
such a place must have been based on the general availability of Turkish 
goods and on the taste of the inhabitants of the city and its neighbourhood. 8 

The importance of the Balkan trade is also made clear by innumerable 
documents from Transylvania, and by Prince Gabriel Bethlen's decree of 
1621 concerning the limitation of goods sold by Turkish, Greek, and Jewish 
merchants. 9 In other tributary provinces, as in Wallachia, Moldavia, the 
Voivodina, Croatia, and Slavonia, Greek, Macedo-Vlach, and Serbian 
merchants together with Jews and Armenians controlled most of the 
commerce. 

In the 18th century, at the time of general decline within the Ottoman 
Empire, the balance between trade and industry was upset by the total 
absence of industrial protectionism and by the disappearance of quality 
control. Thus, while the economic situation of European Turkey was also 
deteriorating, Balkan commerce suddenly flourished more than ever. The 
industrial boom of Europe demanded more and more raw materials. Austria 
and Germany especially needed Balkan wool and cotton, which were 
exported in enormous quantities by local merchants. The trade was also 
carried into western Europe, where from 1730 onwards Amsterdam became 
a chief centre of Greek, Armenian, and Jewish merchants from the Balkans 
and the Levant. 

The 18th century opened new markets for the Balkan merchants in central 
Europe. During the War of Liberation (1683-1699), the Habsburgs regained 
from the Turks most of the lands that had been lost to the Hungarian crown 
for more than 150 years. By the early 18th century, the Banat of Temesvar 



(Timisoara), Oltenia, the rest of Slavonia, and parts of Serbia and Bosnia 
were also regained. These lands provided the Balkan merchants with new 
opportunities for international trade. 

Because of the severe economic conditions during the time of the Ottoman 
occupation, and also as a result of Habsburg policies, there was no native 
Hungarian middle class to take over commerce in Hungary. The new 
western settlers could not help the situation either, since they came largely 
from rural areas. Moreover, the vast central part of Hungary had no town of 
any significant size before 1800. In the circumstances commerce had to be 
undertaken by foreigners who were able and willing to adapt to the 
conditions of this underdeveloped though economically expanding market. 
The Balkan merchants were best suited for the purpose. They had the 
necessary experience and connections, and were happy to enter the 
territories outside the Ottoman Empire. The great merchants, understanda- 
bly, settled along the major waterways, especially the Danube, and were 
largely responsible for the distribution of wholesale goods. In the larger 
towns the Balkan merchants, commonly identified as "Greeks", supplied 
the army as well as the local populations with textiles and formed the most 
prosperous group of the bourgeoisie. Every small town and larger village 
had its "Greek" or Jewish merchant. While not of much importance, 
perhaps, individually, collectively they formed a broad base for retail trade. 
In the mid-18th century a similar development became apparent in southern 
Russia and the Ukraine. 

At the beginning of the 19th century, however, the situation changed 
considerably. While Greek merchants were still able to continue their trade 
in the Mediterranean, overland commerce declined rapidly and became 
more and more localized. The quality of craftsmanship further deteriorated. 
By this time a new national mercantile class had developed in Hungary 
along the lines of western models, and with this class the Balkan merchants 
were unable to compete successfully. Even those Orthodox Christians who 
remained became Habsburg subjects, and instead of continuing their 
traditional trade in Ottoman merchandise, they too turned their commercial 
aspirations towards the west. 

During its last stages the Ottoman Empire produced fewer and fewer 
goods that could be sold abroad. In fact, cheap European factory- made 
goods penetrated Turkey in ever-increasing quantities. Simultaneously with 
this development, the rise of nationalism in the various Balkan states caused 
a series of turbulent revolutions and constant warfare against the Ottomans. 
Consequently the trade routes became insecure, and few merchants wished 
to risk losing their valuable merchandise to raiders. 

Trade in Textiles 

A great part of the trade in European Turkey centred on textiles and was 
directed towards supplying both the Moslem and non-Moslem inhabitants 
of the Ottoman Empire with their daily necessities. Most merchants thus 
had to deal with goods of everyday use, that is to say, with plain linens and 
cottons, cheap dress materials, garments, and footwear. Although 
sumptuary laws regulated the clothing of Moslems, Christians, and Jews, 



many purely Turkish elements of costume were also purchased by the 
"non-believers". 10 Not only baggy trousers but also face-coverings and veils 
were widely worn by Christian women in many Balkan towns and villages 
up to the early 20th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries such veils were 
even part of the fashionable outfits of noble Hungarian ladies. 11 

While it is clear from the foregoing analysis of commercial developments 
in European Turkey that the trade in textiles should be studied both in its 
chronological and its geographical progressions, this is not the place to 
attempt the history of this trade. At present the documentary sources are too 
fragmentary and too limited to permit secure conclusions. This chapter is 
concerned with the variety of the once-popular Turkish textiles and with the 
luxury goods that were frequently acquired directly in the Turkish capital 
instead of through the channels of regular commerce. 

Most trade textile fabrics were made of cotton or wool and were used as 
dress materials or for furnishing. According to Hungarian sources, bagazia, 
fosztan, karman, and muszul were the most popular cotton goods for 
garments, and bagdat was used as a heavier lining. Among woollen fabrics, 
references to a type of broadcloth called granat and figured or plain kamuka, 
kasmir, ktirdi, and csemelyet occur most frequently in the documents. Of the 
silks, the most easily available were the light and simple varieties, such as 
silk satin called atlas, kanica (?), karmasin, and muhar. Plain velvet and a heavy 
fabric made of a mixture of silk and cotton and known as majc were also in 
use. Various sorts of plain, and usually undyed, linen and cotton fabrics 
were used for table linens, bedding, shirts, and underwear. 12 

The sale of furs was another important aspect of trade. In the 17th 
century fox and black sheepskin from Turkey were used for the lining of 
heavy winter wear in Hungary and Transylvania. Turkish marten was also 
favoured by the Hungarian aristocracy. 13 

There was an abundance of cotton 14 and silk yarns 15 among the trade 
goods. Those to be used for embroidery were always carefully distinguished 
from those used for making knotted buttons and braids. 16 Silk embroidery 
thread could be obtained undyed (white and yellow) or in many colours, 
floss, spun, and plied. In addition, silver- and gold-wrapped threads or file 
were available. 17 Turkish yarns were often carefully distinguished in the 
contemporary references from file manufactured in Hungary. Embroideries 
were described as worked with "Hungarian" or "Turkish" silver- and 
gold-wrapped threads. 18 Turkish needles, too, were highly valued. 19 

Embroidery yarns were frequently acquired directly in Istanbul by special 
envoys for the large aristocratic households and for the princes of 
Transylvania. 20 In 1625 gold lame called skofium was made to order for Prince 
Bethlen in the Turkish capital, 21 and great quantities of this precious yarn 
were also purchased for Prince George Rakoczi I. 22 

From Rakoczi's correspondence with his ambassadors and delegates to 
the Sublime Porte, we can extract detailed information concerning the 
quantities of skofium required for his court, the nationality of the makers, and 
current prices. 23 We also learn from these letters about the different qualities 
of skofium and the conditions of their sale. On 14 August 1634, for example, 
Stephen Rethy 24 wrote to Rakoczi from Istanbul: 



Your Excellency, I have sent thirty-three packets of skofium gold, 
and seven packets of white [silver] skofium; the price of each packet 
is 280 aspers (akge). If some of these are not suitable, they may be 
returned. I arranged [with the maker] that he would make an 
exchange within five weeks. 25 

The prince was highly dissatisfied with these particular packets of skofium 
and therefore returned everything. Both the silver and gold lames were 
found "very ugly and coarse, and some, especially the silver, contained 
copper". 26 

Because of the intrinsic value of the precious metals, skofium was always 
quite expensive. A letter dated 1632, written to Rakoczi by Stephen 
Szalanczi 27 from Istanbul regarding a special order by the prince, clearly 
demonstrated this point: 

We did not dare to have the flowers embroidered for the saddle 
blanket, as according to the flowers which Your Excellency wishes, 
it would cost a great deal. The flowers are large, thus a lot of skofium 
would be needed for them. In any case, we selected [the patterns 
for] the flowers. If Your Excellency so orders, they will be 
embroidered quickly. 28 

While Armenian merchants carried silver and gold lames to some of the 
larger cities of Transylvania in the first quarter of the 18th century, 29 the 
contemporary Prince Francis Rakoczi II brought Turkish and Armenian lame 
craftsmen from Istanbul to his castle at Munkacs (Mukachevo) so that they 
could produce what the court required. 30 

Presumably manufactured in Bursa or brought from Persia and places 
farther east, the costly figured silks and velvets, interwoven with gold- and 
silver- wrapped threads as well as with skofium, were usually purchased in 
Istanbul for the personal use of the princes of Transylvania and of the great 
landowners. Contemporary inventories and accounts are particularly 
important records of such purchases. In these we find not only detailed 
descriptions of items bought, but also their prices. 31 Woollen fabrics, too, 
were acquired in Istanbul, though we know also that Turks frequently 
requested fine broadcloths from Transylvania. 32 

Besides these luxury fabrics, printed cloths could also be had in Istanbul. 
Among the goods acquired for Prince Bethlen by John Rimay, 33 we read of 
lengths of cotton printed with red flowers, trees, snakes, and peacocks. 34 
Seventeenth-century inventories also list a great variety of light printed 
fabrics, used frequently for aprons. In some cases, flowering ornaments are 
noted against the characteristically white background of such textiles, while 
elsewhere they are described simply as "woodblock printed". 35 Unfortu- 
nately none of these early printed materials has survived, and so we cannot 
be sure whether they were Indian or Persian imports or the predecessors of 
Turkish woodblock-printed cottons called yazma, which are known through 
innumerable examples from the 18th and 19th centuries. 

Such domestic embroideries as kerchiefs and towels (known as yaglik, 
makrama, pes_gir), table cloths, pillow cases, and embroidered shirts were 
much in demand. 36 They were the products of cottage industry, 37 as is 



evident not only from the fact that they were sold in marketplaces and by 
travelling salesmen but also from contemporary references. About 1631, 
when Catherine von Brandenburg requested the return of certain of her 
possessions from George Rakoczi I, she asked, among other things, for "a 
length of lawn in which eighteen kerchiefs with gold-embroidered ends 
have not yet been cut apart from one another". 38 In the 17th century 
embroidered fabrics for apparel were also available in Istanbul. 39 

In contrast, embroidered articles worked on heavy ground fabrics such as 
velvet, silk satin, or broadcloth must have been produced by professional 
embroiderers. These seem for the most part to have been destined for the 
hunt or for the battlefield. 40 Saddles covered with velvet or silk were richly 
adorned with flowering embroidery in metallic file and lame, as were saddle 
blankets and covers, and bow-and-arrow quivers. Round shields called 
kalkan were commonly decorated with artistic ornaments of stylized 
vegetation. 41 

Special orders could, of course, be filled. 42 In 1626 Prince Bethlen 
requisitioned embroideries for the carriage of his bride, Catherine von 
Brandenburg. John Kemeny wrote: 

In Kassa, the princess was installed in a carriage which had been 
made for her by the prince and which was covered in red velvet. 
Richly worked in skofium gold at the usual places, it was 
embroidered in Constantinople. 43 

Tents decorated with applied ornaments, like those in the museums of 
Budapest (Fig. 27 and 28), 44 Cracow, Vienna, Dresden, Munich, and 
Karlsruhe, 45 were used not only by Turks but by Hungarians, especially the 
Transylvanian princes. We learn from contemporary sources that these 
princes frequently acquired tents in Istanbul. Bethlen requested his envoy, 
Michael Tholdalagy (ca 1580-1642), to hire tent-makers in the Turkish 
capital, 46 and George Rakoczi I sent his tent-master to select Turkish tents 
there. 47 In 1638 Stephen Rethy wrote to Rakoczi:: 

Those kalitka tents . . . were taken for the viziers who followed the 
sultan later [in the battlefield] . . . Here we have found [another] 
kalitka tent with its courtyard, which was ordered by the Qavuq Pa§a 
of the Sultan. Since he remained at home, however, he offered it 
for sale. This [tent] is made of cotton fabric called bagazia, both 
inside and outside. Its interior is decorated with flowers, and [the 
tent] can be set up by only two men. This [tent] pleases the 
tent-master a lot, but even so, he did not dare to buy it without the 
permission of Your Excellency. 48 

In another letter Rethy informed Rakoczi that the price of this kalitka tent was 
20,000 aspers, and that the tent-master would describe it to the prince in 
detail upon his return to Transylvania. 49 
In 1640 Michael Maurer 50 wrote to Rakoczi: 

. . . concerning the making of two nemez [felt or some kind of 
broadcloth] tents, for the two of which I agreed to pay 140 thalers to 
the tent-maker. Having bought the necessary nemez and bagazia, 50 



however, [the tent-maker] tells me that he cannot make [these 
tents] for less than 100 thalers each. If Your Excellency so orders, 
the tent- maker will make [the tents] right away . . . Lord Sebesi 51 
also knows him. He is a Hungarian boy called Pihali. 52 

In 1645 an exceptionally beautiful tent that cost 800 thalers was found very 
expensive. 53 We also have considerable information about the tents used by 
Francis Rakoczi II in the first quarter of the 18th century, while in exile in 
Turkey. 54 

In an inventory dated 1725 of the estate of Catherine Bethlen, widow of 
Michael Apafi II, a richly adorned tent similar to those preserved in different 
collections and to those ordered by Bethlen and Rakoczi is described in great 
detail: 

[There is] a great Turkish tent. Its princely front and sides are made 
of red cotton, and are decorated with applied pictures of 
multi-coloured fabrics, edged with white piping. Its umbrella or 
cover is made of sky-blue fabric with piping of the same colour. 
Twenty side walls of cotton belong to these, which form the 
"court-yard" of the tent. Ten of these require twelve wooden poles, 
and the other ten require eleven poles. The value [of the tent] is 416 
gold florins 40 krajcars. 55 

The same inventory mentions three more Turkish tents apparently also used 
by Prince Apafi. 56 

Turkish and Persian rugs form an especially important group among the 
luxury items acquired directly in Istanbul for the princely courts and the 
aristocracy. According to the testimony of contemporary documents, the 
most valuable pieces were the silk carpets of Persia. On 26 August 1634 
Stephen Rethy informed Rakoczi: 

When Lord Martin Pap was [in Istanbul] the other day, he saw silk 
carpets at a Turkish merchant's. The nicer ones cost 150 thalers 
each, and even the lesser ones cannot be purchased for less than 
100 thalers each. The price of the two divan rugs is 300 thalers, but I 
have not seen those. 57 

The high cost of these rugs is also clear from Rakoczi' s letter of 18 July 1642 
to Stephen Racz: 58 

Those four Persian rugs, which you might have bought for 750 
thalers, should not be sent. Soon one of our men will go [to 
Istanbul], and he will bring them. 59 

Less expensive woollen carpets of Turkish manufacture were often made 
to order in considerable quantities. On 12 August 1646 Rethy explained to 
Rakoczi the difficulties which he had with a large order. His letter also gave 
extensive information about various simpler rugs: 

Your Excellency, I went to see the rug merchant Turk twice, but he 
has no such rugs as that one taken by Michael Szava. He agreed to 
accept 25 thalers for it, but [Szava] gave only 24. The measurements 
were left with the Turk. He has promised to have them made, but 



does not want to order them until he receives 200 thalers . . . since 
he has to send his own men to Karamania to have them made. Here 
the Turks do not buy that type of rugs, and [the merchant] is afraid 
that they cannot sell them, thus he requires a down payment. He 
does not want to sell [the rugs] for less than 30 thalers each. I have 
tried for a long time to get him down to 28 thalers, but as soon as he 
sees the money, he will agree. 60 

While documents from Hungary and Transylvania give us much valuable 
information about trade relations with Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire in 
general, most sources refer only to the purchase of luxury goods. The 
availability of mass-produced textiles for a more popular market is rarely 
mentioned. Though inventories of the lesser nobility and of bourgeois 
households contain a broad range of simple oriental textiles, and sumptuary 
laws show the popularity of certain costly fabrics among guild members as 
well as servants, such documents provide very little information about 
actual trade. As a consequence, the quantitative aspects of Ottoman trade 
cannot be studied even in those areas from which a considerable amount of 
written evidence has survived and been published. In the lands south of 
Hungary, there is an even greater scarcity of information. 

The qualitative aspects of trade in Ottoman textiles are much clearer. The 
documents provide a great deal of data about the relative distribution of 
such goods among the different social strata of the population and about 
luxury products and their purchasers. In turn, this type of source material, 
and especially records of acquisitions in Istanbul, can assist the researcher in 
determining the nature of trade in the Turkish capital, the possibilities for 
fulfilling individual orders, and the dependence of the great merchants on 
craftsmen working in and outside the city. Although other kinds of sources 
are relatively scarce even from the lands of the Hungarian crown, limitations 
of goods, customs regulations, shipping documents, business corre- 
spondence, notes, and inventories may also broaden our knowledge of 
business methods, of the specialization of the merchant class, and of their 
legal ties and opportunities. 

It should nevertheless be added that trade in these lands was not directed 
exclusively towards the east. Great quantities of Italian and western 
European goods were constantly unloaded in the major ports of the Adriatic 
to be traded through a network of regular commercial routes all over 
European Turkey and in Istanbul itself. Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, 
and Poland developed significant commercial connections with one another 
and with central and western Europe. In Hungary, for example, 17th- 
century documents mention the importation of broadcloth from England, 
Holland, Venice, Padua, and Nuremberg, and of linen fabrics from Poland, 
Holland, Italy, Germany, and Silesia. Figured silks, frequently interwoven 
with gold and silver yarns, and cut or uncut velvets came from Italy and 
Spain. Lace and lace-like fabrics for frills, collars, and various trimmings 
were brought from Germany, Italy, and Brussels. Certain garments 
originated from various European countries or were made in the fashion 
current there. Women's dresses are known to have come from Vienna and 
Spain, skirts from Poland, France, and Germany, and hats and caps from all 

10 



these places. For jewellery, Vienna, Venice, and Prague appear to have been 
the most important centres. Many of the articles were imported directly, 
while others were acquired in Vienna. Various goods arrived via Venice, 
though some Venetian products could have also come via Istanbul. 61 

Though we must leave it to the economic historian to determine the extent 
of the east-west textile trade in European Turkey, we can nevertheless 
conclude from the sources that trade with the east was important. A great 
deal of research must be carried out in numerous disciplines if we are to 
obtain a comprehensive picture of the situation throughout the Balkan 
countries and in such semi-independent principates as Transylvania, 
Moldavia, and Wallachia. The significance of the Ottoman and oriental 
textile trades should also be examined in the adjoining states to the north, as 
in northern and western Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland, since the 
eastern trade relations of these countries were generally formed with 
European Turkey rather than with Turkish commercial connections in 
western Europe. 



11 



Garments 

(Fig. 1-26) 



Because of the Turkish expansion and occupation of the Balkans and a 
continuing Turkish presence even in the territories to the north, oriental 
fashions were as popular from the 14th to the early 20th century among the 
aristocracy and nobility as among the inhabitants of towns and villages. The 
Ottoman Turks, however, were not the first to introduce eastern dress to 
these lands. Throughout the period of the Great Migrations, a constant 
influx of such nomadic peoples as the Sarmates, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, 
Petchenegs, Hungarians, Cumanians, and Mongols, introduced many 
costume elements from the steppes. The traditions thus established were 
reinforced by the arrival of the Turks. 62 

At the height of Ottoman power in the 16th and 17th centuries, interest in 
oriental garments was spread throughout the west by a general exotic trend 
in European fashionable costume. During this period the popularity of 
Turkish garments was in accord with the tendencies of western modes. Yet 
if Turkish styles found a fertile ground in the Balkan countries, it was not 
primarily because of the parallel European developments in fashion or 
because of an attraction to oriental splendour and luxury. The fact was that, 
as these territories became more and more isolated from the rest of Europe 
under the supremacy of the Sublime Porte, it was natural that costume and 
the minor arts should reflect the political context in which they took shape. 

Manuscript illuminations and panel paintings from the 14th through the 
16th century frequently depict such figures as the three Magi, 63 the Roman 
centurion of the Crucifixion, and the persecutors of Christ as Turks wearing 
turbans and characteristic oriental garments. Historical sources indicate that 
this type of costume was not simply an iconographic attribute of certain 
"outsiders", since Turkish fashions were favoured at the same time by the 
local aristocracy. King Mathias I Corvinus of Hungary, when receiving 
Caesar Valentini, the ambassador of Ferrara, was dressed in a long Turkish 
kaftan. His outfit was unusual in the eyes of the Italians present, who were 
used to short Italian garments. One of them noted that the king gave 
Turkish kaftans and other garments made of expensive Persian fabrics as 
gifts for the occasion. 64 Ottoman styles were also popular in the court of 
Wladislaw II Jagiello. 65 

Transylvanian inventories from the 16th to the early 18th century mention 
Turkish kaftans and other coats in profusion among the possessions of the 
important families. On 17 November 1633 at Munkacs Castle, Catherine von 
Brandenburg, widow of Gabriel Bethlen, received six kaftans from George 
Rakoczi I; one of them is described as being made of silk interwoven with 
gold, and another as patterned in small red flowers on a white ground. 66 Of 
the sixteen Turkish kaftans listed among the treasures of Emericus Thokoly 
in 1683-1686, one had been given him by the vizier of Buda. 67 Catherine 
Bethlen's inventory of 1729 lists twelve Persian coats made of silk, depicting 
human figures in gold against a background interwoven with silver file. 68 

12 



Turkish kaftans, nevertheless, were probably not worn very often. Various 
contemporary lists indicate that they were frequently cut up and used for 
other purposes, such as to make coverlets or paplans or the lining of male 
garments. Hangings also were occasionally made of one or two kaftans. 69 
Fur linings and fur garments were frequently ordered from Istanbul. 70 
Turkish leather coats with elaborate leather applique, which probably 
formed part of the military outfit, were also worn in Hungary 71 (Fig. 18 and 
19). Their influence can be demonstrated through a variety of ethnographic 
derivatives (Fig. 20-24). A complete Turkish military outfit has survived in 
the Batthyany castle at Kormend. 72 

It was not only in territories occupied by the Turks, or tributary to them, 
that Turkish garments were admired. 73 Under the political domination of 
the Viennese court, the Hungarian nobility of Transdanubia was also 
attracted to Turkish fashions and the luxury fabrics of the East. Francis 
Batthyany, who maintained amicable relationships with a number of Turks, 
received Turkish garments valued at 300 gold florins in 1611. 74 Such luxury 
items had already found their way to the court of the Austrian emperors. 
More than a generation earlier, in 1583, Ali Pa§a of Buda wrote to Emperor 
Rudolph I: "We are sending to Your Excellency velvet for two garments; one 
piece is blue, while the other is red with details in gold". 75 Another Ali Pa§a 
of Buda sent two beautiful kaftans of a material interwoven in gold to the 
crown prince Mathias (Mathias II) in 1606. 76 

Kaftans played an important role as diplomatic gifts. 77 When an embassy 
was received at the Sublime Porte, kaftans were generally given as "robes of 
honour" to the leaders and to important members of the delegations. In a 
letter addressed to George Rakoczi I in 1638, Stephen Szalanczi described 
the ceremony of the reception of an embassy by the Sultan and the ritual 
offering of kaftans: 

After having been asked by the kaymakam whether the tax was 
brought in gold from Transylvania, he told me, "The following 
Tuesday I shall have you appear in front of His Imperial Majesty, 
the Sultan." As the weather was ugly and windy, there was no 
divan, and our reception was postponed until 24 January. Then 
[the Turks] arrived, and a large number of qavu$es came on 
horseback to the House [Embassy] of Transylvania. They accom- 
panied us with great solemnity . . . Though it was the time of their 
Ramazan or fast, we were offered seats in the divan ... in front of 
the kaymakam and the viziers . . ., then we were taken to the place 
where kaftans are given. There eight of us were "kaftaned", not 
counting the interpreter, and I was taken to the Sultan . . . Only 
Lord Rethy was left beside me. There I saluted His Honour the 
Sultan, presented him the letter of Your Excellency and the 
presents, that is to say, the tax of 10,000 gold florins, one wash 
basin with a pitcher, ten large covered chalices of silver gilt, made 
in a courtly fashion, and twenty-eight falcons. Prior to being 
"kaftaned" in the "kaftan-giving" hall, I gave out the presents to 
the members of the Sultan's court to the sum of 11,000 aspers. 78 
In 1613 Thomas Borsos 79 described such an occasion in a humorous but 
most realistic manner: 

13 



[The Turks] did not give a kaftan to Stephen Szalanczi, as he had 
already received two on the way. Since we were all dressed [in 
kaftans], however, he started to shout rudely at Lord Balassi in the 
divan, stating that he was also the servant of Gabriel Bathory 
[1608-1613], and asking why he had not been given one. Then [the 
Turks] took a kaftan from the back of the Qavu§ Jusuf, and that was 
put over Szalanczi. We were quite ashamed because of him. Then 
we stood there until a kaftan was found for the Qavu§ Jusuf. 80 

The quality of the garment offered reflected the tone of the reception. In 
1618 Thomas Borsos wrote: 

We went to say farewell to the Sultan, but were not received in 
great honour. We were given very poor kaftans and were not 
offered food. [The Sultan] himself was given a poor kaftan. He, 
however, expressed his dissatisfaction, and in the end a better 
[kaftan] was brought for him, but not a great deal better. 81 

In 1678 when Wolfgang Bethlen together with other Transylvanian lords led 
an embassy to Istanbul, the group was dissatisfied with the unfriendly 
reception they received at the hands of the grand-vizier, who offered them 
neither seats nor kaftans. 82 

The offering of kaftans was not exclusive to the court in Istanbul. 
Representatives of the Sultan carried the custom abroad. When George 
Rakoczi (II) was elected in 1642, the pa§a, as the representative of the 
Sublime Porte, gave kaftans both to the young prince and to his father, 
George Rakoczi I, after the presentation of the Sultan's letter. 83 

The offering of a kaftan was much more than a simple diplomatic courtesy 
or a gift. One may surmise that the custom derived from the courts of the 
early caliphs, where "robes of honour" were presented on special festive 
occasions both as gifts and as symbolic expressions of patronage, protection, 
and supremacy. The story of the famous Turkish kaftan of Kecskemet, an 
important town on the Great Hungarian Plain, expresses almost as folklore 
the continuity and survival of this tradition. The town minutes of 1668-1669 
record that the citizens of Kecskemet received a garment of silk and gold 
fabric in 1596 from the Sultan in exchange for their generous gifts. The 
garment was supposed to protect them from any Turkish demands and 
attacks. Thus, whenever the town was confronted by a Turkish army, the 
mayor went to meet them wearing the kaftan. Upon seeing him, the Turks 
would dismount immediately and kiss the garment. 84 

The custom of dressing people in kaftans as a sign of honour was adopted 
by the Hungarians. Prince Emericus Thokoly observed the custom in his 
own court, particularly when receiving Turks: "I also 'kaftaned' with my 
own mente my interpreter at the Sublime Porte, Aga Hasan, when he came 
to my house. In this manner I confirmed his position as my interpreter at the 
Sublime Porte". 85 

The wearing of oriental garments in European Turkey had a major 
influence on local costume, and particularly on male attire. Such influences 
often resulted in the creation of regional styles. Long, kaftan-type coats were 
widely worn in Transylvania by Hungarians and Saxons alike. Contempo- 

14 



rary observers remarked that Prince Gabriel Bethlen looked like a Turkish 
dignitary. 

The oriental character of Hungarian male costume was thought of in the 
west as a specifically Hungarian fashion. A similar style was also 
characteristic in Poland, the Ukraine, and parts of European Russia. In 
Moldavia (Fig. 1), Wallachia, Bulgaria, and Albania, pictorial representations 
indicate that kaftans were equally favoured by men and women of the 
aristocracy. 86 

Although the names of at least some of these garments are well known 
from written sources, it is usually difficult to determine which kind of 
costume was actually meant by a certain name. In Transylvania cauw§ mente 
most likely described an upper garment which was at least reminiscent of 
the uniform of the gavu§. Such a garment is noted in an inventory of 1650 
from Kolozsvar as "qavuq or coachman's mente" . It was lined with dark green 
kamuka patterned with yellow flowers, with sea-coloured silk tabby along 
the fronts and back. 87 The inventories of the estate of Prince Bethlen report 
that this type of garment was made from the most expensive atlas, figured 
silks, and plain or patterned velvet. It might be lined with velvet or fur. 88 
Turkish mentes were also owned by Hungarians. 89 In an inventory dating 
from 1650, "a short-sleeved or Turkish mente" refers more specifically to the 
look of this garment. 90 The boer mente might be identified with the festive 
garments of the boyards in Wallachia or Moldavia. The horvatos mente {mente 
a la Croatian) seems to indicate a coat of Croatian style rather than of 
Croatian manufacture, 91 while the Circassian variant could indicate a 
Caucasian type. 92 A type of koponyeg-mantle, associated with the Sublime 
Porte, was made either of broadcloth or of camel-hair felt. 93 

The orientalizing variants of costume exhibit already in the 17th century 
the cosmopolitan nature of fashion in European Turkey. The regional 
diversity of ethnographical costume, known from relatively recent exam- 
ples, probably evolved to a great extent from these early developments. 

Prince Michael Apafi I's inventories indicate that Turkish baggy trousers 
were worn at the Transylvanian court. 94 The fashion was probably 
short-lived since the garment is not found in any artistic depictions and has 
no ethnographic counterparts either in Hungary or Transylvania. Documen- 
tary evidence shows, however, that at the end of the 18th century such 
Turkish trousers were still worn by members of the lower classes in the city 
of Debrecen (Great Hungarian Plain). A certain John Rac (1746-1774) of 
Hajdiiszoboszlo, a town near Debrecen, had such trousers made of aba 
broadcloth. 95 

Various types of Turkish hats are described in the sources. 96 The 
widespread fashion among the Hungarian aristocracy of wearing jewelled 
agrafs most certainly originated in the Ottoman mode. 97 Turkish slippers, 
boots, and women's shoes called pacsmag (Turkish pas.mak) as well as 
footcloths were also widely worn. 98 Elaborately embroidered Turkish shoes 
with pointed toes were included among the Sultan's presents to Michael 
Apafi 1.99 

Turkish silk sashes were ordered by George Rakoczi I from Istanbul. 100 
Balthasar Sebesi informed the prince on 6 August 1641 that he should 
provide him with the necessary measurements for two ash-coloured sashes 

15 



which Rakoczi had ordered. Sebesi also added that "they could not be made 
prior to the arrival of the tax, ... as only one woman makes such big and 
long sashes". 101 

On 4 April 1643 Rakoczi again asked for sashes from Istanbul through 
Stephen Rethy: 

You may order two silk sashes for us. The length of each should be 
13 cubits [sing] of Nandorfehervar [Belgrade], and each should 
weigh 600 drams. It should be easy for the person who will make 
them to judge from these provisions how wide they will be. We 
shall render payment immediately. 102 

Rethy had some difficulties with this order and wrote thereof to Rakoczi on 
25 April of the same year: 

They cannot make here those two silk sashes of 600 drams each, 
which Your Excellency ordered to be made. The aged woman who 
used to know how to make them is very weak and is expecting her 
death every day. A Jew wrote to Morea [Peloponnese] to have 
them made there, as they bring [such sashes] of natural white 
colour from there, which are dyed here [in Istanbul]. Your 
Excellency did not specify the colour, though I should know this as 
soon as possible. We cannot determine the length of a cubit of 
Nandorfehervar either; one refers to it one way, and another 
another way. In any case, Your Excellency, I told them to make [the 
sashes] twice as long as the length of an ordinary sash made and 
dyed here. 103 

As references to sashes are often connected with the production of silk 
nets for bird hunting, 104 one may suspect that they were all made either in a 
netting technique or in sprang. 

The centre of Rakoczi' s Hungarian properties was Sarospatak in the 
northeastern part of the country. During the excavation of the Roman 
Catholic church there, several sprang sashes of tightly spun silk came to light 
from four 17th-century crypts. They measure 200 cm to 250 cm in length and 
100 cm to 120 cm in width, their ends are finished in tassels 105 (Fig. 25 and 
26). These examples may also have come from Istanbul. 

Hungarian sources contain some references to embroidered or plain 
Turkish shirts, blouses, and chemises. In 1598 a Turkish shirt is mentioned 
among the possessions of a citizen from the northern Hungarian town of 
Selmecbanya (Banska Stavnica). 106 In 1633 George Rakoczi I returned a 
Turkish night-shirt to Catherine von Brandenburg. 107 The inventory of 
Catherine Bethlen, dating from 1729, lists a gold-embroidered woman's 
chemise from Turkey. 108 Ladislas Esterhazy's red silk shirt of ca 1650 
exhibits a definite Turkish fashion with its gold-lace edgings and embroidery 
of gilt and silver files depicting oriental flower sprays on the sleeves. This 
shirt, however, might have been made in Hungary. 109 Related garments 
with orientalizing embroidered ornaments are also well known from Greece 
(Fig. 48). 

By the late 17th century the popularity of Turkish styles in western and 
northern Hungary had given way before the influx of western fashions, but 

16 



it was only in the 18th century that the oriental mode disappeared in 
Transylvania. Thereafter, only the traditional Hungarian gala costume 
preserved some elements of this unique mode. On the other hand, certain 
features of the kaftan were retained in some ethnographic costumes, for 
example, the exaggerated sleeve length of the sziir, or Stolzenburger mantel, 
worn by Saxons in Transylvania. 110 

In the Balkans, where the Turkish occupation lasted much longer and 
where the possibilities for independence were limited and western 
influences few, Turkish fashions of the 18th and 19th centuries continued to 
reign supreme. In Bulgaria Turkish women's kaftans could be used as festive 
Jewish garments. ] • : The mode preferred by the army, by the rich mercantile 
class of the cities, and by members of local courts in Wallachia, Serbia, 
Macedonia, Albania, and Greece closely followed the style set by the 
Ottomans. This tendency can be seen especially in the many variants of long 
and short jackets, with or without sleeves. These jackets were made of fine 
English broadcloth or velvet heavily trimmed with couched embroidery in 
silver and gilt braids, with knotted buttons studded with coral and 
turquoise 112 (Fig. 3-6). Some of the jackets were worn over such typically 
Turkish garments as baggy trousers, 113 while in other cases they were put 
over the long robes of Balkan women, 114 the f us tanella, us and even over 
fashionable European costume. 116 

Early versions of these elaborately ornate jackets became popular in towns 
and villages around large urban centres in Epirus, Macedonia, Montenegro, 
and Bosnia. Orthodox Christian merchants, because they represented a 
privileged and socially revolutionary class during the Ottoman period, were 
highly respected among their compatriots. Consequently, certain visible 
aspects of their life-style were often imitated by the less influential 
merchants and artisans, as also by the inhabitants of rural areas. Of these 
aspects, costume was particularly important. 

Although the costume of the upper classes was copied by people of lower 
social rank in most places and cultures of Europe, there was a significant 
interval between the appearance of the fashionable prototypes and their 
rural adaptations. The result was, quite naturally, a considerable diversity 
from region to region in decoration and in the materials used. The situation 
was somewhat different in the Balkans because of their specific social and 
historical conditions. In and around urban areas the regional styles that 
developed were much the same for most strata of the population, and 
occasionally close similarities were maintained over large geographic areas. 
The styles of jackets and coats, the most representative garments, often 
became symbols of national identity. In Romania, Albania, and Greece, they 
remained part of royal garb and gala costume for state receptions until quite 
recently. The former popularity of the mode is well attested by its numerous 
simple ethnographic derivatives 117 (Fig. 9 and 10). 

The characteristic couched embroidery of metallic braiding that adorned 
the vast majority of these garments occasionally appeared on costume cut in 
the western fashion. An example from Epirus is typical (Fig. 8). In Attica the 
same type of decoration became common on a local variety of sleeveless 
jacket that formed part of the festive outfit worn by women 118 (Fig. 7). 

Although in the more remote rural areas of the Balkans regional costume 

17 



was generally widely diversified, men's coats frequently show the influence 
of the ornate jackets discussed above. These garments, made of home- 
produced, heavily fulled, coarse woollen cloth, are generally quite simple, 
but their basic cut, with open hanging sleeves, and their braided decoration 
derive from the rich garments of the Balkan merchants. 

Elsewhere, Ottoman influences are older, and consequently more difficult 
to trace. In Albania and Yugoslavian Macedonia, a variant of the guna, a 
threequarter-length jacket with vestigial sleeves joined together at the back, 
appears to be closely related to mantles worn by Turkmen, Uzbek, and 
Tadjik women in Central Asia (Fig. 11-13). Some Bulgarian women's robes, 
and a type of men's coat called siguni, worn by Macedo-Vlachs near Skopje, 
were constructed with central back seams. This characteristic from the 
eastern regions of Central Asia is practically unknown in southeastern 
Europe. The existence of these rare types of garments in the Balkans is 
probably due to Turkmen settlers in the area. Turkmen moved into the 
Ottoman Empire in large numbers during the 14th and 15th centuries. At the 
time, many of these newcomers were moved into the Balkans by the Turks. 
Although they have now disappeared, elements of their material culture, 
such as these costumes, have come down to us. 119 

In Slavonia, Croatia, Transylvania, and northern Serbia, the applied 
decoration of skin garments bears strong Ottoman overtones (Fig. 20-24). 
Close parallels can be drawn between their ornaments and those of 15th- 
and 16th-century Turkish leather coats (Fig. 18 and 19), though the garments 
themselves are unrelated. 

Balkan jewellery, especially that made of coins, is basically similar to that 
of the Ottomans. In the 17th century belts made of coins were worn by the 
Hungarian nobility. Inventories often describe "belts made of old pagan 
[Turkish] gold or silver coins", some of which contained as many as 100 
pieces of money. So great was the demand for this type of belt that 
goldsmiths had to imitate Turkish coinage when the supply ran short. A 
gold and silver belt, ordered by Susanne Szekely, contained twenty-five 
pieces "made in the form of pagan coins". 120 Most Turkish-style jewellery, 
however, comes from the lands farther to the south. Its once-great 
popularity is evidenced by the many regional variants that have survived. 



18 



Embroidery 

(Fig. 32-58) 



Turkish needlework of the period from the 16th to the first half of the 19th 
century stands as a highlight in the history of domestic embroidery. In the 
balanced though unsymmetrical sprays of exotic flowers composed into 
stylized ornaments, Persian and some Chinese elements were blended, with 
an exquisite sense of design, in formations of real Turkish splendour. The 
well-chosen colours, together with the rigid and dark outlines of the motifs 
and the variations of fine reversible stitches, added to the beauty of the 
pieces. 121 It is hardly surprising that Turkish embroideries had a strong 
influence on those of the occupied and tributary lands. 

At the same time, oriental and Turkish needlework was making its mark 
on the domestic embroideries of the western countries. The period when the 
Ottoman Turks became prominent in Europe coincided with the spread of 
the Renaissance, and the secular art style which this movement engendered 
welcomed the "flowers" of the Orient, which were copied and adopted in all 
the minor arts. These tendencies, clearly present in the 16th century, were 
strengthened by an increasing interest in the East in travel and trade, and 
particularly in the goods of the East India companies. Turkish influence over 
the occupied territories, nevertheless, remained the most prominent factor. 
There, Turkish and oriental influences led to the creation of many regional 
styles in needlework and costume, which subsequently developed distinct 
national characteristics. 

Turkish embroideries were regular trade items throughout the Balkans 
from at least as early as the 15th century. Finer examples or made-to-order 
pieces, however, could only be acquired in Istanbul, where they were 
purchased by the envoys of the princely courts. 122 Other exquisite pieces 
were offered as gifts by Turks, who traditionally gave embroidered kerchiefs 
to commemorate important occasions. 123 Embroideries were considered 
valuable booty and were frequently taken in battle. 124 Transylvanian sources 
record that some acquired in this way were presented to churches. 125 The 
secular character of the furnishings in Protestant churches was more 
favourable to the flowering design of oriental pieces than was the lirurgically 
more conservative Roman Catholic Church. In the 17th century, neverthe- 
less, we read about a towel or kerchief (pe§gir) which was acquired to cover 
an altar. 126 Sources from Transylvania and Hungary also refer to embroi- 
dered kerchiefs or covers requested from freed Turkish prisoners or 
captives. 127 Some of these embroideries found their way into church 
treasuries. 

Although inventories of the large households and even of some bourgeois 
homes contain a considerably greater amount of Turkish needlework than is 
recorded as being in the possession of churches, 128 the pieces preserved in 
ecclesiastical treasuries form an especially important selection of source 
material. 129 While household articles have seldom been preserved, and 
while embroideries did not survive in any large number in Anatolia, 

19 



venerated donations to places of worship were used only for special 
occasions and were thus preserved for centuries. Their acquisition is 
frequently noted in dated parish records, and sometimes they bear 
embroidered dedications with dates. 

Extant 16th- and 17th-century Hungarian and Transylvanian documents 
often indicate not only that Turkish embroideries were highly desired, but 
that Turkish embroideresses or bulyas 130 were employed in the large country 
estates of the nobility. 131 In a letter written to his wife in 1596, Count George 
Thurzo confirms that bulyas followed their Turkish warriors to the 
battlefield: "I was able to take a very good embroideress bulya, my dear, to 
please you." 132 

Bulyas were bought and sold. In 1641 a whole group of them was sold at 
the market of Igoly. One, called Sali, went for 81 thalers, while another, by 
the name of Haczina, was traded for a mere 17 thalers. 133 A letter dated 1600 
from Catherine Thelegdy to the wife of Sigismond Rakoczi is most 
informative in this regard: 

I beg you, my beloved younger sister, not to forget about me, but to 
send me a Turkish woman. Because of my sickly state, I had to send 
Sir Albert Zokoly to the market at Kallo, and he was not able to 
bring back anything but a big Turkish girl, who was rather 
expensive. I myself would never have paid as much for her. 
Nonetheless she embroiders, but I cannot say that she does so 
remarkably. 134 

In other cases, the Hungarians tried to acquire Turkish embroideresses in 
Istanbul, though these requests could not always be easily filled. In 1613 
Thomas Borsos wrote about such a matter to Gabriel Bethlen: 

Your Excellency, we went to considerable trouble and work to find 
an embroideress, and in the end were unsuccessful. We would 
have bought the daughter of Qavu§ Jusuf, a musician. He, however, 
said that he would never sell her even for 100,000 aspers to a 
non-believer [i.e., Christian], since it is forbidden. 135 

In the early 17th century Lady Batthyany corresponded extensively about 
embroidery patterns with Turkish families living in Hungary. 136 Magdolna 
Orszagh, wife of Stephen Banffy, learned Turkish embroidery from her 
Turkish maid. 137 

Documentary evidence alone thus emphasizes how extensive Turkish 
influence was within the boundaries of the Magyar kingdom. Embroideries, 
embroideresses, and embroidery patterns spread throughout the country to 
become common, even characteristic, in the large Hungarian estates. Under 
the circumstances it is often impossible to distinguish between embroideries 
produced in Istanbul and those produced in Anatolia, or those produced in 
Hungary by Turks and those produced by Hungarians. Contemporary 
documents refer frequently enough to Turkish 138 and Persian (Kazul) 
stitches, 13y but these may mean no more than that the embroideries were 
produced by Hungarians copying such techniques learned directly or 
indirectly from the bulyas. I40 The names of specific embroidered articles are 
also often of Ottoman Turkish origin. 141 

20 



The same wave of popularity that brought Turkish embroideries to the 
Hungarian court also brought about the adoption of oriental styles, 
techniques, and social customs related to embroidered kerchiefs. It has 
already been noted that the Turks frequently offered embroideries as gifts. 
From at least the 17th century, the custom was maintained in Transylvania 
and the counties of eastern Hungary closely associated with the principate. 
Nicholas Bethlen noted in 1679: 

When, following the installation of the new ambassador, the 
reverend abbot said farewell to the prince, the prince gave him two 
good horses from his own stable; then [he said farewell] to Minister 
Teleki who pleased him with a third horse; and at the end, when he 
dropped in to see my uncle, Wolfgang Bethlen, he received a fourth 
horse. But what was most surprising for us Transylvanians was the 
extraordinary honour given to him by the princess. She offered him 
six very fine embroidered Turkish kerchiefs. No other foreigner had 
ever received such a tremendous favour. Our ladies occupy 
themselves with such works. 142 

The last sentence of this passage seems to suggest that these so-called 
Turkish embroideries were actually produced by Transylvanian ladies. 

A letter of Catherine Bethlen, wife of Joseph Teleki, written in 1729, 
reveals an entire etiquette associated with the offering of embroideries at 
weddings. She explained to her brother-in-law, Alexander Teleki: 

My Lord, I had the twenty-three kerchiefs embroidered according 
to your request, that is to say five kerchiefs worked in skofium, eight 
in crimson silk, and ten in sea-green silk ... As far as I know, 
kerchiefs with skofium are required for the best men, the bridesmen, 
and those who announce the happy tidings of the new marriage. 
When the master of ceremonies is not a member of the family, he 
should also be given such a kerchief; but when he is part of the 
family, such a measure is not necessary. I do not know for sure how 
many kerchiefs you require worked with silk and silver or gold 
file. 143 

This custom is known from other sources 144 and has been followed in 
villages to the present day. Both in eastern Hungary and Transylvania, long, 
scarf-like towels, embroidered across the two narrow ends, are prepared by 
the bride for the wedding. They are worn by the best men, fastened across 
the breast, and in many cases by the male guests in the wedding procession. 
In the Kalotaszeg district of Transylvania, decorated towels are also knotted 
to the horns of the oxen that draw the dowry-laden cart from the bride's 
parental home to her new abode. After the wedding the scarves are carefully 
preserved as a remembrance of the occasion. They are generally exhibited 
above pictures, mirrors, or ceramic plates in the guest rooms of the 
houses. 145 In shape and design they recall Turkish pe$girs, and may well be a 
legacy of Ottoman culture that penetrated to the Hungarian villages through 
the embroideries and woven textiles once favoured by the upper classes. 
Shorter towels or napkins are also used to cover gifts of food for births, 
weddings, and funeral banquets; 146 these undoubtedly stem from the same 

21 



source, and are similarly displayed in the home, and sometimes in churches 
(Fig. 84 and 85). 

Related pieces can be found throughout the Balkans, the Ukraine, and 
western Russia. In parts of Greece, 147 Albania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavian 
Macedonia, Serbia, Bosnia, and Wallachia, many 18th- and 19th-century 
embroidered towels, even though worked by Christians, follow the 
development of Turkish embroideries so closely that they cannot be readily 
distinguished from those made in Anatolia. 148 While many such pieces are 
embroidered, others are adorned with woven patterns exhibiting a wide 
range of techniques. Such ornamental towels are known through 19th- and 
20th-century ethnographic material from western Anatolia 149 and the Greek 
islands 150 to Croatia, Romania, and Hungary. 151 The similarities in design 
and technique are striking, and the entire group is worthy of a separate 
study (Fig. 71-85). 

The woven decoration of tablecloths, bed-covers, and costume often 
reflects related Turkish and orientalizing influences. The diagonally placed, 
highly conventionalized floral sprays, each worked into a square, on 
brocaded and embroidered headkerchiefs, bonnets, blouses, and skirts are 
especially characteristic in Bulgaria and some Yugoslavian provinces (Fig. 16 
and 17). 



22 



Carpets 152 

(Fig. 29-31, 59-70) 



As a result of the Ottoman Turkish expansion and intensive trade centred in 
Istanbul, Turkish and Persian carpets became popular throughout the 
Balkans and eastern Europe. The importation of oriental carpets into 
western and southern Europe was also significant and has been a focus of 
interest for rug specialists since major exhibitions and studies on the subject 
began in earnest in the late 19th century. 

Through the so-called "Polish" and "Transylvanian" rugs, the importance 
of those early carpets that had survived in eastern Europe was also 
recognized. 153 Nevertheless, the rich documentary evidence from these 
lands has received relatively little attention. With the exception of source 
material from Kronstadt (Brasso/Brasov), 154 a major Saxon commercial and 
trading centre in southern Transylvania, the documents were rarely 
consulted. 155 Their testimony, however, points to a major stream of oriental 
trade and will be used here as evidence for the existence of oriental carpets 
in Hungary and Transylvania from the late 15th to the 18th century. The 
16th and 17th centuries are the best documented since they correspond to 
the period when the Ottoman Empire and the Transylvanian principate 
flourished both politically and economically. Actual examples of oriental 
carpets and the difficult problem of associating existing pieces with types 
frequently noted in the written sources will only be mentioned in passing. 1S6 

The first written references to oriental carpets in Hungary are from 
15th-century inventories. 157 From at least the last quarter of that century, 
Saxons of Transylvania participated actively in the rug trade. Documents 
dating from 1480 and 1481 in the archives of Kronstadt inform us that 
merchants of the city carried carpets in considerable numbers to Mol- 
davia. 158 The city records show that between January and November 1503 
over 500 carpets were imported. 159 In the Saxon city of Hermannstadt 
(Nagyszeben/Sibiu), documents mention carpets in the possession of both 
Saxon and Hungarian families from 1495 onwards. 160 Turkish rugs 
undoubtedly reached Transylvania directly from Anatolia, for in 1456, just 
three years after the fall of Constantinople, Mehmet II granted trade 
concessions to Moldavian merchants. 161 

An indication of the esteem in which oriental rugs were held is to be found 
in an early 16th-century description by a Frenchman, who noted that when 
the French bride of Wladislaw II (Ulaszlo) Jagiello of Hungary arrived in 
Buda, she was offered Turkish rugs by the cities of Transylvania as a sign of 
special esteem. 162 It remained a general custom for Transylvanian cities 
throughout the 16th and 17th centuries to present the most prominent 
citizens with a carpet on the occasion of their wedding. 163 Carpets were 
frequently donated to churches as the gifts of the well-to-do. 

The large towns of the Great Hungarian Plain, which was part of the 
Ottoman Empire from the first quarter of the 16th to the end of the 17th 
century, played an active part in the rug trade, although to a considerably 

23 



lesser degree than the cities of Transylvania. According to the account books 
of Cegled, Kecskemet, Nagykoros, and Szeged, several hundred oriental 
carpets were sent from here to western and northern Hungary, areas that 
were under Habsburg rule. Carpets formed part of the regular tax. They 
were to be included as part of the episcopal tithes, and as tribute to the 
Ottomans. As a consequence, Kecskemet sent rugs to a nunnery in Pozsony 
(Pressburg/ Bratislava), a custom which persisted in the early 18th century 
long after the expulsion of the Turks from the Plain. 

Carpets were considered the most precious of gifts and were given to the 
Hungarian dignitaries who were put in charge of the territories under 
Turkish rule. In 1636 the conciliation of Paul Esterhazy, who was proposing 
to burn the saltpetre works of Nagykoros because the townsmen had made 
saltpetre for the Turks, was made with carpets. In 1641 Cegled, Kecskemet, 
and Nagykoros together presented a rug to the Palatine. In 1648 Nagykoros 
offered twelve carpets to Francis Wesselenyi when he delivered a favourable 
judgement concerning a dispute in which the town was involved. These 
carpets had a confirmed value of 1,200 thalers; eight of them were described 
as Persian. General Adam Forgach, Prince George Rakoczi I, Stephen 
Kohary, and Paul Wesselenyi, commanders of the castles of Nograd and 
Onod, were also given carpets. Rugs were customarily offered by 
participating towns as gifts when the National Assembly met in Pozsony. " ,4 

Inventories of the 16th and 17th centuries provide a great deal of 
information about rugs that were in the possession of the nobility and the 
upper bourgeoisie. Even the less prominent noble families owned consider- 
able numbers of carpets. An inventory of Paul Tomory, dating from 15 July 
1520, lists eleven rugs. 16S In 1579 Gaspar Horvat had six white carpets; in the 
same year Catherine Horvat inherited four medium-size white rugs in 
addition to a few red carpets. 166 In 1599 the Csenger estate of George Kiraly 
included sixteen rugs, of which two red and four white ones were wrapped 
in a large red rug. 167 In 1607 twenty carpets of different sizes and colours 
were listed as part of the estate of Stephen Tatay. 168 Every prominent family 
of the mercantile class had at least one or two carpets in its possession, and 
some had many more. 169 

In 1603 a by-law was passed in some Transylvanian cities to the effect that 
when the valuables of an estate were to be divided among the members of a 
family, they should be displayed on a table covered by a rug. A lighter 
tablecloth was placed over this rug, and the different items of silverware and 
jewellery were exhibited in this setting. 170 

Some inventories describe the proportion of carpets used in various rooms 
of country mansions, palaces, and castles. According to an inventory of 1629 
from Szentdemeter, ten of fifteen rugs were used in the reception and 
dining halls. In the former, five large divan rugs were hung against the wall 
opposite the windows, while on the other side, between the three windows, 
two red rugs decorated the wall. One of the two tables in this hall was 
covered with a new multicoloured carpet on a white ground (feher tarka). The 
dining room was obviously considered less important, for there the table 
was covered with a worn multicoloured carpet on a white ground, and a 
single colourful kege or felt rug hung beside the window as the only wall 
decoration. 171 

24 



The reception room of the mansion at Kiralydaroc was less elaborately 
adorned with carpets when an inventory was made in 1647. One length of a 
Seckler rug, presumably woven in tapestry weave, was placed around the 
walls along with a new grey camel-hair carpet decorated with two columns, 
and a rather worn red rug beside the tiled stove. The table, however, was 
covered with a new white "jackdaw" {csokas) or "bird" carpet. 172 

The more important the family, the greater the quantity of carpets it 
possessed. In 1612 the treasures of George Thurzo included fourteen large 
divan rugs, one large red rug, and five white and four red rugs of 
considerable size, each of which was used to cover two tables. In the same 
inventory, fourteen red and eight white rugs of smaller dimensions were 
noted for single tables. 173 In 1656 the inventory of George Berenyi's castle at 
Bodok contained the following: two divan and five Persian rugs; fourteen 
small new rugs; six new carpets with outmoded patterns; eleven scarlet and 
four white rugs; and one worn, two large, and three short peasant rugs. 174 
In 1662 sixty-three different rugs were listed in Simon Kemeny's residence at 
Aranyosmeggyes. 175 In 1692 sixty-seven rugs were recorded at the Apor 
House in Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca, Klausenburg). 176 

The princes of Transylvania possessed carpets in even larger numbers. In 
1629 the rooms of Gabriel Bethlen were furnished with 150 rugs, both large 
and small, while 75 Persian and 113 Turkish and other carpets were kept in 
the "store house for rugs". 177 In 1661, 146 carpets of various sizes were listed 
among the possessions of the widow of Prince Akos Barcsay. 178 In 1669 
seventy-eight rugs were mentioned in an inventory from the residence of 
the prince of Transylvania at Gyulafehervar (Alba Iulia), capital of the 
principate; the majority of these were of Turkish origin. Thirteen were 
so-called divan rugs, while others were described as having been brought 
from Istanbul by John Fogarasi, messenger of Princess Anne Bornemissza to 
the Sublime Porte. 179 In an inventory of 1674 from Gyulafehervar, a scarlet 
rug interwoven with gold is noted among the goods bought for forty silver 
thalers from Isaac, "the Jew from the Sublime Porte". 180 This might have 
been a silk carpet from Persia. The Persian rugs purchased for the princess in 
1673 cost as much as 600 gold florins, 181 and very likely included silk rugs. 

The documents frequently describe the function of oriental carpets in 
castles and palaces. Paintings also show that in Italy, as in the Netherlands 
and Germany, rugs were commonly used as a covering for tables as early as 
the 15th century. In 1529 four rugs from Paul Maghy's estate were 
designated "for the covering of tables". 182 In 1609 the dowry of Catherine 
Vekey included "a red rug for a table", 183 while an inventory of the Marothy 
and Viczay families from 1610 lists five rugs "to cover tables". 184 In George 
Thurzo's inventory of 1612 a series of rugs was designated for tables. One of 
the large rugs covered the round table of the count, and four similar pieces 
were kept in storage, possibly as alternatives for different occasions. A red 
rug was specifically described as the covering for two tables in the count's 
inner chamber, while three similar examples were kept in storage. 185 In 1681 
we read about "a used Persian carpet to cover a table" in the estate of 
Catherine Hedervary. 186 Numerous references derive from Transylvania, 
where the custom was especially widespread. 187 Rugs were still being used 
there to cover tables as late as the early 19th century. 188 The records of 

25 



Kronstadt relate that carpets were used as table covers in the town hall. 189 
The pulpits of the Hungarian and Saxon churches of Kolozsvar were 
covered with white rugs. 190 

Other rugs were hung against the walls, like tapestry hangings imported 
from western Europe. Here too, the first references are from the 15th 
century. Four large rugs to be placed "against the wall" are noted in the 
inventory of Paul Maghy's estate (1529). 191 In an inventory of Kanizsa castle 
dated 1552, two rugs are described for use "against the wall". 192 In 1581 
George Barbarith, Count of Zolyom, gave to his daughter Catherine, fiancee 
of Emericus Eleffanty, "a large red rug to be placed against the wall". 193 

Transylvanian sources from the 16th to the 18th century are filled with 
references to rugs as wall hangings. Various red carpets, 194 so-called divan 
rugs, 195 prayer rugs, 196 and even saddle blankets are described. 197 Kilims 
and other tapestry- or flat-woven examples appear to have been particularly 
favoured for this purpose, 198 and occasionally even a felt rug or kege. 199 The 
walls of the town hall in Kronstadt were hung with oriental carpets, and the 
city's so-called Black Church was richly adorned with rugs. 200 Carpets were 
sometimes used also as curtains. In an inventory of the Apor House at 
Kolozsvar (1692), "a small rug for a window" was listed. 201 Other types of 
carpets, usually in pairs, were designated for carriages. 202 

Relatively few documents mention carpets as floor coverings. However, 
the omission undoubtedly reflects a general familiarity with this use, as 
distinct from their use as covers for tables or walls. 203 The many comments 
about worn and used rugs on tables and against the wall might well indicate 
a secondary usage. If the documentary descriptions do not as a rule indicate 
the exact type of carpets referred to, it seems quite obvious from the 
references that the same types were used for many different purposes. 204 

The sources, which frequently differentiate between Turkish and Persian 
carpets, seldom indicate a more precise geographic origin and thus do not 
provide any clues about the various rug-producing areas of the time. It 
seems obvious that by the 16th and 17th centuries Istanbul had become the 
centre of the Anatolian rug trade as well as that of other places in the 
Ottoman Empire and Persia. It was there that most rugs were acquired for 
the ruling classes of Hungary and Transylvania. Itinerant merchants dealt 
for the most part only in the cheaper varieties which lay within the reach of a 
much larger proportion of the population. Though oriental carpets were 
highly valued by their new owners and large sums in silver and gold were 
paid for them, nobody was sufficiently informed about eastern geography to 
be really interested in their precise origins. Their association with Turkey 
and Persia was enough to give the products an exotic flavour among 
Hungarians. It may also be added that many of the Istanbul dealers were 
probably no more knowledgeable about centres of rug-making than their 
modern counterparts who describe everything as being Anatolian. 

A great deal can be learned from the correspondence of George Rakoczi I 
about the acquisition of carpets in the Turkish capital. The letters offer a 
glimpse of the variety of rugs available. They also give some indication of the 
large number of rug-producing centres in Anatolia and elsewhere, of rug 
sizes and prices, and also of the taste of the Transylvanian lords, which 
sometimes differed from that of the Ottomans. It is obvious from these 

26 



letters that many rugs were made to order and according to rather detailed 
instructions. 

Silk rugs from Persia are often mentioned. 205 On 19 March 1639 Rethy 
wrote to Rakoczi: 

Your Excellency, I have found very beautiful silk rugs from Persia at 
one place. The length of each of these is 5 cubits [sing], and the 
width is 3 cubits. Some are 4 1 /2 cubits long, and 2 cubits and 2 
fertalys wide. These cost 50, 60, and 70 thalers each. There is one 
among them, Your Excellency, that is woven with gold and silver 
threads. I have never seen such [a rug]. It is 3 cubits and 1 fertaly 
long, and 2 cubits and 1 fertaly wide, and is a marvel to behold. It 
depicts two pairs of confronting peacocks, or rather pelicans; their 
faces are worked in gold and silver threads. Above their heads is a 
large, handsome flower; even the fringes contain some silver 
thread. Its price is 125 thalers. 206 

Silk carpets must have been rare in Transylvania, particularly those 
enriched with details in metallic thread. In Prince Gabriel Bethlen's 
inventory from Gyulafehervar (1629), only one rug woven with gold is 
mentioned; another white carpet with flowering ornaments is described as 
being richly interwoven with silver. 207 The esteem in which these special 
Persian carpets were held both by Transylvanians and Turks is clear from 
Thomas Borsos' description of a Persian ambassador's reception at the 
Sublime Porte in 1619. Among the large quantities of presents brought from 
Persia to the Ottoman Sultan, the "beautiful and costly silk rugs" received 
special attention. "Some of these were interwoven with skofium gold, while 
others were simpler." 208 

Woollen carpets were less costly and were frequently ordered in 
considerable numbers. On 2 January 1646 Szalanczi informed Rakoczi that 
he had found: 

. . . twenty of those scarlet rugs which Her Excellency ordered us to 
look for. They are very nice new types. Whatever Her Excellency 
decides about them, they cannot be purchased for less than 15 
thalers each. 209 

Michael Maurer wrote in 1640 about the difficulties of having rugs made to 
order in Turkey: 

Had I understood at the start Your Excellency's desire concerning 
the chessboard and the making of white rugs, I would have ordered 
them. It will now be difficult to have those rugs finished within a 
year. 210 

With very few exceptions the documents disregard carpet motifs. The 
greatest amount of detail about the patterning of carpets is given in the 
documents that contain the negotiations between Catherine von Branden- 
burg, widow of Gabriel Bethlen, and George Rakoczi I. An inventory from 
1633, listing the goods that were returned to the princess in the castle of 
Munkacs, describes four large divan rugs with considerable care. The first of 
these carpets is "for the wall, with an outer border containing white flowers, 

27 



and a centre field covered with yellow, green, and red flowers"; the second 
is again "for the wall", but "with a red border and a centre field with large 
flowers of various colours"; the third is made of silk — "its outer border 
contains yellow flowers, and the field white flowers with red centres and 
some other colours"; while the fourth is "for the wall, with a border of red 
flowers and a centre field covered with flowers in green and various 
colours". Only the size, basic colour, and occasionally the purpose of the 
other rugs are noted in the same inventory. 211 A typical inventory of the 
1720s from the estate of Catherine Bethlen, widow of Michael Apafi II, says 
no more than that there were about ten Turkish rugs adorned with various 
patterns. 212 

The lists from the 17th century are usually more descriptive. White 
"jackdaw" ("bird") rugs (feher csbkas) are noted among the possessions of 
citizens in Kolozsvar, 213 and in the inventories of Kiralyfalva (1647) 214 and 
Drasso (1647). 215 This type of rug was so popular that it was imitated in a 
less expensive fashion. In the estate of Judith Veer, the wife of Michael 
Teleki, six hangings painted in the form of white "jackdaw" rugs were 
listed. 216 Contemporary documents indicate that European tapestries were 
also copied in this fashion. 217 

Seventeenth-century inventories from Kolozsvar list white rugs "dotted 
in black" (fejer babos; fejer feketen csipegetett). 218 In the chapel of Kovar castle, a 
carpet with all-over black waves (feketen meghabozott) is mentioned in 1694. 219 
Other references suggest that some rugs had all-over checkered patterns or 
cassette-type divisions, 220 while elsewhere white rugs are described simply 
as having colourful ornamentation. 221 

The "two small scarlet rugs with red columns, to cover single tables", 
mentioned in a document dated 30 July 1650, may have been prayer 
carpets. 222 In 1647 a multicoloured Turkish carpet was listed in the manor of 
Kiralyfalva; 223 and in 1692 a carpet with columns, probably a prayer rug, was 
noted among furnishings in Kolozsvar. 224 Included in the possessions of 
Balthasar and Michael Macskasi in 1656 was a "white scarlet" rug decorated 
with table legs, undoubtedly a reference to the colours of a prayer carpet. 225 

In other cases the rugs are generally referred to according to their 
dominant colour. White and red appear to have been the most popular ones. 
White rugs are sometimes described as "multicoloured on a white ground", 
and red ones as "multicoloured on a red ground". Other carpets were noted 
as yellow, black, brown, and multicoloured. "Scarlet" rugs, though usually 
red, were also known in white, orange, blue, yellow, and in many other 
colours. Green was a favourite colour for a group of flat-woven examples 
manufactured in Transylvania. 226 

At least some of these carpets must have belonged to types with which we 
are familiar from surviving examples, but the documentary information is 
insufficient to allow us to formulate precise attributions. 227 Whether these 
rugs were of the knotted kind or flat weaves is seldom to be ascertained from 
the sources. 228 Seventeenth-century funerary pictures from Hungary, 
however, often depict the deceased lying on Turkish and other oriental 
carpets, most of which are knotted 229 (Fig. 59-61). Existing evidence is 
provided by the numerous knotted Turkish rugs preserved in the mainly 
Protestant churches of Transylvania. Both artistic depictions and existing 

28 



material thus suggest that knotted rugs formed the dominant group. 
Tapestry-woven pieces were described then as now, as kilims and seldom as 
rugs. This distinction between knotted and flat- woven rugs can be 
attributed to the fact that the former were far more costly than the latter. 
Knotted rugs were as a consequence more suitable for the luxury trade and 
for export to distant places than were the cheaper varieties. It may also be 
significant that it is the expensive silk carpet from Persia that is most 
frequently mentioned in the Hungarian sources. 

Whether the so-called divan rugs were of Persian origin is a moot 
question. In Bethlen's inventory of Gyulafehervar (1629), some of them are 
described as being made of silk, 230 but most were of wool. Though many 
were large, some were small, and not all of the large carpets are called divan 
rugs in the documents. They were usually red, but in the palace at 
Gyulafehervar there were "smaller white divan rugs", 231 and in 1629 
multicoloured examples on a white ground were listed at Szentdemeter. 232 
It is only in the Thokoly inventory of Arva castle that they are described as 
"tapetes Persici, vulgo divan szonyeg" , while scarlet rugs are referred to as 
"tapetes Turcici,vulgo skarlat [scarlet] szonyeg". 233 Both types probably came 
from Turkey. The divan rugs could even have been manufactured in 
Istanbul, 234 and the large quantities of divan rugs used in Transylvania may 
indicate a courtly style rather than the actual products of court workshops. 

The rug merchants of Istanbul traded extensively in the products of 
western Anatolia, but many rugs came from central Anatolia. It would seem 
from written and artistic sources that even village rugs reached the capital 
and were shipped from there to the court of Transylvania and to other large 
Hungarian households. However, it is not clear whether all rugs available in 
Transylvania and Hungary were indeed of Turkish or oriental manufacture. 
Among the red and white carpets, the adjectives "common" and "ordinary" 
(kbz) are sometimes added in inventory lists. Margit B. Nagy suspects that 
these were local products. 235 Some documents mention "Jewish" rugs 
without further specification. 236 

A characteristic group of 17th- and 18th-century knotted carpets, 
classified under the general heading of "Transylvanian", were once believed 
to have been manufactured in Transylvania. This type is of smaller 
dimensions and recalls the prayer rug. It has a pointed arch at one or both of 
the narrow ends of the centre field and is framed with a triple border. It has 
been argued that these rugs originated in western Anatolia rather than in 
Transylvania, but their eclectic style and their technical characteristics, 
which differ from those of the carpets associated with such recognized 
regional centres as Usak and Bergama, and the problem of dating them have 
made rug specialists uncertain about their place of manufacture. Charles 
Grant Ellis looks rather to the Balkans for the origins of these and other 
types well represented in Hungarian collections. 237 

The question remains unresolved, but some important considerations 
may be drawn from a little-known Turkish rug dating from the 17th century, 
which is part of the Turkish booty now housed at the Badisches 
Landesmuseum in Karlsruhe 238 (Fig. 29-31). This piece is neither knotted 
nor flat-woven, but consists of mosaic work of coloured broadcloth. The 
technique is the same as that of the so-called Resht covers and some related 

29 



Turkish examples from the 18th and 19th centuries. The ornamental design 
of the Karlsruhe rug is remarkably similar to that of the "Transylvanian" 
carpets. The basic structure of the ornamentation is the same, and the 
individual elements of the design are related, although they are somewhat 
more naturalistic in broadcloth mosaic than in the knotted rugs. The use of 
such Turkish carpets must once have been quite widespread. A very similar 
mosaic-work piece is depicted in Johan Zoffany's "Tribune of the Uffizi" 
(1772-1777/8), now in the English royal collection. 239 The rug, which covers 
a table in the centre of the picture, is adorned with a divided multiple border 
and rich ornaments of tulips and carnations against the medium-blue 
ground of the centre field. 

Mosaic work carpets of this type might well have been known in 
Transylvania as kelevet. The early 18th-century inventory of Catherine 
Bethlen lists "a Turkish cover called kelevet, made of English broadcloth with 
an edging of green silk, and lined with canvas of the same colour. Its value is 
136 gold florins". In the same source, three further kelevets are mentioned as 
"floor coverings with flowers, made of Turkish fabrics of various 
colours". 240 In a Szepesvar (Spissky Hrad) inventory (1671), twenty- two 
carpets are described as "of half silk [and] of yellow and red kamuka [woollen 
or cotton fabric]". In addition, there were four "half silk and kamuka carpets 
with red flowers", and one "half silk satin carpet with red braiding". 241 
These might also belong to the group. In the inventory of the estate of 
Catherine Hedervary, wife of John Viczay, there is a reference to what may 
be a similar cover: "a dark green rug worked in the form of flowers from 
broadcloth, which was used to cover a table" (14 May 1681). 242 Were such 
kelevets adorned like the Karlsruhe piece, they might have inspired the 
patterning of carpets produced somewhere in the Balkans, and perhaps also 
in Transylvania. 

Besides knotted carpets and kelevets some sources mention keges or felt 
rugs, occasionally made of camel hair. 243 Elsewhere they appear to have 
been of wool, adorned with ornaments in different colours. Among John 
Rimay's purchases in Istanbul we read of "a long kece with flowers". 244 
Though felt rugs can be ornamented in variations of mosaic work as well as 
in an inlaid fashion, the flowering design suggests the latter technique, still 
common in the pattern of Anatolian felt rugs. 245 A list of goods acquired in 
Istanbul in 1591 describes a "colourful Italian kece rug" or rather "a kece made 
in the Italian fashion", which may refer to the style of the ornaments. 246 
Elsewhere the documents mention the function of these rugs, which were 
frequently used as wall hangings and bed coverings. 247 

The correspondence of George Rakoczi I provides numerous details about 
the different sizes and prices of felt rugs and about some centres of felt 
manufacture in the vicinity of Istanbul. In the postcript to a letter written to 
the Prince by Balthasar Sebesi (6 August 1641) is this flowing account: 

We bought ten colourful keges; . . . they are nice and of good 
quality, and as for their size, they are a bit longer and wider . . . 
[than those which you ordered]. The ten keges were measured at the 
Embassy of Transylvania, and were found to be 496 cubits long all 
together, the price of which, according to the Limitation . . ., comes 

30 



to exactly 402 thalers and 15 aspers. [The Limitation] specifies 65 
aspers per cubit. This sort of kege from Zelenek is generally highly 
valued . . . Had we bought different keges, as those of Edirne, they 
would have been four cubits wide. Those are different and definitely 
of lesser quality. In any case, Your Excellency did not specify the 
kind of kege to be bought, but said that they should be in various 
colours. We judged that these are better and nicer [than those made 
elsewhere], though according to their size, their price is rather 
high. 248 

Other documents refer to kilims or tapestry woven carpets. Red kilims 
appear in 1637 among the inherited goods of John Bethlen at Marosszentki- 
raly. In 1656 the hall of the mansion at Mezoszengyel was hung with three 
old Turkish kilims. In the same year two colourful kilims are described at 
Doboka; one of these was new, while the other was worn. Four good and 
two used kilims belonged to Michael and Balthasar Macskasi. Michael 
Macskasi also h?-l kilims in his manor at Biizasbocsard. In 1657 "an old, torn 
kilim, [woven] in white, red, and other colours", decorated the walls of the 
manor at Szurduk. 249 In 1688 Turkish merchants sold kilims at Komarom. 250 
The "half of a worn Persian rug", described in an inventory of 1681 as 
hanging against the wall beside the bed, may well have been a kilim, 
originally sewn together from two narrow widths. 251 The inventory of the 
mansion at Cegeny (1698) values a kilim at three florins, indicating how 
much cheaper these carpets were than their knotted counterparts. Because 
of their price, they would have been available to a much larger section of the 
population. 252 

From the scanty descriptions of Anne Bornemissza's inventories, one may 
suspect that the sour-cherry-coloured rug, given annually by the Greek 
inhabitants of the city of Fogaras (Fagaras) to the prince of Transylvania as a 
special tax, was also a kilim. 253 The sour-cherry-coloured rugs given to the 
prince by the ambassadors of the vajdas, presumably of Oltenia, might also 
have been flat- woven. 254 

Although only a few of the foregoing examples can be identified with any 
certainty as kilims and flat- woven rugs of oriental origin, it is likely that a 
large proportion came from Turkey. The type was soon imitated by the 
inhabitants of Transylvania and numerous Balkan regions. So-called Seckler 
carpets, presumably the predecessors of the well known Seckler-Hungarian 
kilims or festekes from eastern Transylvania, 255 were first noted between 1573 
and 1576 in an inventory book of Beszterce (Bistrija). The burghers of this 
city used them by the roll to cover walls. 256 In 1647 the walls of a large room 
of the mansion at Kiralyfalva were decorated with a whole roll of "Seckler 
carpet". In 1656, the walls of the "first room" of the manor at Mezoszengyel 
were covered with some five yards of "narrow Seckler rug", while upstairs 
in the same house a "long, colourful Seckler carpet" was listed. 257 The 
adjective "poor" (hitvany) is often added to the description of Seckler carpets 
as an indication of their more common origin and low cost. In 1696 "Saxon 
carpets" are included in an inventory of the castle of Bethlen. They might 
also have been of a tapestry-woven type manufactured by the Saxons of 
Transylvania. 258 

31 



Other Transylvanian documents refer to hair rugs or wall hangings made 
of hair, which again could have been tapestry-woven local village products. 
While they held a secondary position in the cities and the large aristocratic 
households as cheap "imported" goods, they were by far the most common 
types found in villages and small country estates. In 1634 several "wall 
hangings of hair", some of which were green and others "woven in 
checkered pattern", are noted among the possessions of Francis Macskasi. 
In 1637 "a hair carpet to cover cattle" was listed in a Kolozsvar inventory. 
According to the sources, hair rugs tended to be green or red and were 
generally hung on walls. 259 Their use continued throughout the 18th and 
19th centuries, and they have survived in some villages into recent times. 

From the 18th century, numerous Oltenian kilims are known, and some of 
them are dated. Related material exists in Bulgaria and the Yugoslavian 
provinces. Kilims of various designs are common in 19th-century ethno- 
graphic material from Transylvania, southern Hungary, the Ukraine, 
Moldavia, Bucovina, Bessarabia, Poland, and throughout the entire Balkan 
Peninsula. 260 They also had a major influence upon the decoration of bags 
(Fig. 70), and of aprons and skirts (Fig. 14 and 15) from these lands. Their 
technique, general style, and ornaments are closely related to Turkish and 
Caucasian kilims, and there can be little doubt that this widespread 
production grew from the influence of Ottoman Turkish textiles. The 
similarities in the decoration are so great that many groups of Turkish kilims 
may be better studied through the evidence of the material from eastern 
Europe than from what has survived in Anatolia. No effort has yet been 
made, however, to take advantage of this valuable source. Most works on 
the subject discuss Balkan kilims from a strictly regional viewpoint, while the 
numerous publications of oriental carpets generally neglect these modest, 
though interesting, examples. Indeed, the whole question of oriental 
flat-woven rugs has not yet received sufficient attention in rug literature. 



32 



Postscript 



Though Turkish textiles and minor arts have been recognized as having an 
important role in the countries which at one time or another were part of 
European Turkey, they have never been considered as anything more than 
provincial Ottoman art, and no attention has been paid to their impact on 
local traditions. This short essay attempts to fill part of that void by 
concentrating on existing Ottoman textiles from the Balkans and on their 
influence in the formation of regional styles. A great deal of the evidence 
used is derived from Hungarian sources. Similar attention could and should 
be given to the Romanian, Albanian, Slavic, Greek, and Turkish sources in 
order to determine, within a chronological framework, the historical and 
economic developments over the entire territory of European Turkey and in 
the neighbouring principates under the suzerainty of the Sublime Porte. A 
thorough examination of trade patterns and trade goods would also be 
significant, particularly if wholesale and retail products, and the distribution 
of each, could be clearly distinguished. The significance of travelling 
salesmen and peddlers must be considered if this type of commerce, 
however primitive, is to be appreciated. The regular trade of towns and 
monthly markets could be compared with the commercial connections of the 
princely courts, for which goods were frequently made to order, and for 
which the more important items were acquired directly from Istanbul. 

The collaboration of textile and costume specialists, ethnographers, 
linguists, and economic, social, and art historians will facilitate the 
interpretation of every aspect of the problem, but to be successful, 
researchers will have to throw off the confining bonds of national 
prejudices. It goes without saying that the subject should be examined from 
the Ottoman Turkish side. 261 

In order to provide the necessary basis for such studies, the content of 
relevant national and international collections, both historical and ethnog- 
raphical, as well as written sources, must be made available. Some of the 
Hungarian publications, mainly those from the last third of the 19th and 
early 20th centuries, the records of the city states of the Dalmatian coast, and 
the major efforts of Nicolae Beldiceanu, who has concentrated on Ottoman 
documents from Anatolia and also on some Romanian material, can be 
considered as a framework upon which to build. 

Interpretive studies are also badly needed, especially on the regional level. 
Even if the documentary background is not sufficiently known, there is 
already enough evidence to lead to certain valid conclusions, which in turn 
may arouse a wider interest in the publication of a variety of sources. 

Gertrud Palotay, in her basic work on the Ottoman Turkish elements in 
Hungarian embroidery, published in 1940, offers an interpretation of an 
important aspect of the problem. Preliminary efforts have also been made to 
connect the evidence of actual carpets and of written references to the 
oriental rug trade. Ida Bobrovszky's investigations into the trade in Turkish 

33 



goods in the cities of the Great Hungarian Plain provide an insight into the 
moral criteria which led the Christians of the occupied lands to market but 
not to use Ottoman products. The tragic death of Corina Nicolescu in the 
devastating earthquake in Bucharest in 1977 ended her work on aspects of 
Ottoman Turkish influences in Romanian court costume from the 16th to 
18th century. Her important study on this question, published in 1970, 
nevertheless remains a landmark in the field. 

Further attention may be given to those aspects of Turkish minor arts that 
may be better explained through the wealth of material from central and 
eastern Europe than through the scanty evidence surviving in Anatolia. In 
this regard, textile studies are of prime importance. 



Notes 



1. For bibliographic references, see Appendix 4. Stoianovich's work (1960) is especially helpful 
for the understanding of commerce and trade during the Ottoman Turkish period; parts of this 
chapter derive from his findings. 

2. As early as 1449, merchants from Ottoman territory obtained the right to sell their goods in 
the market places of southern Hungary (Palotay 1940: 10). 

3. Because of the religious tolerance of the Ottomans, Jews, mainly of Sephardic origin, settled 
in various provinces of the Empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. Besides Istanbul, 
Salonika, Edirne, Nikopol, Sofia, and Sarajevo had large Jewish populations. 

4. The marketing of specific goods remained characteristic throughout the 18th and 19th 
centuries. About 1800, for example, a certain type of creped shirt, worn by both sexes, was 
manufactured in Greece as well as in western Asia Minor and some of the coastal islands. 
According to J.S. Bartholdy who travelled in the Ottoman Empire in 1803-4, the finest examples 
of these shirts were made at Salonika, Izmir, and Chios, and shirts of a lesser quality came from 
Istanbul and Bursa (Gervers 1975: 63). 

5. Takats 1900: 173; Takats 1899: 411-12; Palotay 1940: 16-17. Turkish merchants of the Great 
Hungarian Plain are especially often mentioned in the sources (Velics and Kammerer 1890: 
382, 453f.). A letter by Mary Forgach, dating from 1621, informs us about Turkish merchants 
selling patyolat (see Appendix 6, part b) near Esztergom (Deak 1879: 136). 

6. Emericus Nagy in 1587, George Czompo of Ebesfalva in 1677, and Christopher Kis of 
Szamosiijvar (Gherla) in 1675 dealt in various Turkish goods (Kerekes 1902; Szadeczky 1911: 
164-65, 242, 618). In 1624 John Paxy, a merchant of Nagyszombat (Trnava), acquired and sold 
Turkish goods in Komarom (Takats 1898: 443). 

7. Kerekes 1902: 184. 

8. Szendrei 1888. See also Appendix 6, part c. 

9. G. Bethlen 1871. For the trade of Turkish and Greek merchants in Transylvania, see also 
Szadeczky 1911 : 452, 611, 615, 618. A document notes that in 1649 a silk rug and Turkish braids 
were acquired from a Greek merchant (Szabo 1976: 543). 

10. Broughton 1855: 447-49; Culic 1963: pi. 13, 22; Scarce 1975: 4; Scarce 1976: 52. 

11. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 53-56 (1581), 71-73 (1588), 73-75 (1590), 97-98 (1599), 104-11 
(1603), 129-30 (1609), 211-17 (1618), 220-25 (1620), 325-30 (1656); Schulz 1912: 16. These veils 
were referred to as orca takaro and orcaboritd f&tyol in contemporary inventories. 

12. In Hungarian sources of the 15th to the 18th century, a great number of fabric names can be 
associated with Turkish and oriental dress goods. Sometimes the words themselves are of 
Turkish or oriental origin, frequently adopted in Hungarian from Balkanic languages. Other 
names are marked with such adjectives as "Turkish" or "Persian" to indicate the eastern origin 

34 



of the fabrics. For a general discussion of such materials, see Kakuk 1954; Kos 1964: 161-66; 
Palotay 1940: 14-15. For specific examples, see Appendix 6, parts a and c. Innumerable 
expressions designate ordinary linens and cottons (gyolcs, patyolat, vdszon); see Appendix 6, 
parts b and c. 

13. Schulz 1912: 80. 

14. For Turkish thread, usually of cotton (cerna), see Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 1010; Szabo 
1976: 1161. Other sources refer to white cerna spun "at home", and yarns (cernak) from the city 
of Kassa (Kosice) in Upper Hungary and from Cracow (Schulz 1912: 83-84). The latter were 
probably of linen. Cerna was sold by both length and weight. 

15. Most of the yarns were sold by weight (nitra). Spun and floss silk were often simply called 
silk, and cost less than plied yarns. While in the 17th century one nitra of Turkish silk was worth 
4.50 florins, one nitra of the plied yarn cost 5.40 florins. In some cases, plied silk for embroidery 
was sold in small skeins (Schulz 1912: 83-85; see also the inventory of a Greek merchant in 
Appendix 6, part c). 

16. In the 17th century, plied and braided silk as well as fine silk cords were used for specially 
knotted buttons (Schulz 1912: 85; Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 1010, with references from 1635 
and 1669). Gazir or guser silk, a heavier braided yarn, was favoured for buttons (Szamota and 
Zolnai, 1906: 296). For the manufacture of such buttons, see Nyary 1904. Heavier silk yarns 
served for bird-hunting nets. In 1613, one hundred drams of blue silk for braiding hair was 
noted by Borsos (1972: 76). 

17. See the indexes of Beke and Barabas 1888, Radvanszky 1888, and Szadeczky 1911. 

18. In a dowry of 1630, three pillow-cases and two sheets were described as embroidered with 
Hungarian gold thread; in the dowry of Mary Thokoly (1643), nine blouses were worked with 
Turkish silver and gold; in 1656, Mary Viczay had one short blouse embroidered with 
Hungarian silver, while another was worked in Turkish gold and silver (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 
2]: 253-56, 277-86, 325-30). Gold and silver file could also be had from Europe, especially from 
Vienna and Venice, Italian gold yarns were offered for sale not only in Italy but also in the 
Austrian capital (Radvanszky 1888: 1-157). 

19. Varju-Ember 1963: 15. 

20. For the purchase of silk yarns of many colours, destined specifically for embroidery, and of 
gold and silver files, see the correspondence of George Rakoczi I (Beke and Barabas 1888: 95, 
110, 116, 205, 218, 240-41, 378, 385, 554). The acquisitions for Gabriel Bethlen (1615-27) were 
published by Radvanszky 1888: 1-157. 

21. Radvanszky 1888 : 119. Skofium gold and silver were also acquired for the prince in the open 
market in Istanbul. 

22. Beke and Barabas 1888: 105, 109, 112, 205, 241, 378, 385. For the price of skofium, see also 
Radvanszky 1888: 1-157. 

23. In 1634 only a Jewish craftsman was known to manufacture skofium in Istanbul (Beke and 
Barabas 1888: 105). 

24. Stephen Rethy served as kapi kethudast in 1634 and 1635, 1637 to 1640, October 1642 to 
January 1644, and 1644 to 1647. 

25. Beke and Barabas 1888: 109. 

26. Beke and Barabas 1888: 112. 

27. Stephen Szalanczi served as kapi kethudast in 1632 and 1633. He was Rakoczi' s ambassador 
to the Sublime Porte from November 1637 to February 1638, and from 1645 to 1648. 

28. Beke and Barabas 1888: 45. 

29. Catherine Bethlen wrote the following to her brother-in-law, Alexander Teleki, in 1727: 
"When I was in Szeben [Hermannstadt/Sibiu], I could not buy a cubit of skofium gold for less 
than eight florins and a cubit of skofium silver for less than seven florins from the Armenians" 
(K. Bethlen 1963: 207). 

30. Thaly 1878b: 167; Thaly 1879: 347. See also Palotay 1940: 18. 

31. Radvanszky 1888: 1-157; Palotay 1940: 15; Gyalui 1893. Velvet was often acquired for 
Transylvanians in the Galata district of Constantinople, though some of the fabrics may have 
been of Italian manufacture (Beke and Barabas 1888: 123). Plain velvet, probably of Turkish 
origin, was also sold in Transylvania by Greek merchants (Szadeczky 1911: 618). For expensive 

35 



Persian fabrics, see Borsos 1972: 279. Garments made of rich oriental fabrics have survived in 
Romanian, Greek, and Hungarian collections. 

32. In 1634 an aga asked for seventeen cubits of blue broadcloth of Brasso (Kronstadt/Brasov), 
fulled twice, for mantles, and for broadcloth to cover coaches in Turkish fashion (Beke and 
Barabas 1888: 105). The gifts of the Transylvanian princes, however, generally consisted of 
goldsmiths' works (ibid. 1-2, 441f., 465-66, 472, 475). It is rather exceptional that when the 
Transylvanians received a Russian embassy in 1638 in Istanbul, Persian rugs, gold and silver 
brocades for royal garments, and silk satin and skarlatin for jackets and coats were offered to the 
various members of the delegation (ibid. 387). Obviously all of these goods must have been 
acquired in the Turkish capital, even if some of them were manufactured in Europe. 

33. Rimay 1955: 448-58. 

34. Palotay 1940: 17. 

35. Schulz 1912: 48-50. 

36. Between 1615 and 1627, silk embroidery for sheets, a number of embroidered kerchiefs to 
be made into cushion covers, pillow-cases worked in skofium, ten kerchiefs embroidered in 
skofium and ten others worked in silk, six pe$temals or bath-towels, a large embroidered table 
cloth of bulya fabric (dreg bulya vaszonra varrott abrosz) and smaller ones of patyolat were acquired 
among other things for Gabriel Bethlen in Istanbul (Radvanszky 1888: 1-157). For pillow-cases, 
see also Beke and Barabas 1888: 552-53, 555. In 1619 Borsos acquired embroideries for aprons 
and sheet ends in the Turkish capital (Borsos 1972: 282). 

37. A cottage industry for embroidered articles flourished well into the 19th century. The 
English traveller Charles White noted that in 1844 "all articles of embroidery are worked by 
Catholic, Armenian, and Greek women of the Fanar, Pera, and Bosphorus villages, who 
maintain themselves practically by this employment" (White 1845 [vol. 2] : 102). For the variety 
of embroidered articles available in the first half of the 19th century, see ibid. 101-5. 

38. Part of the estate of Prince Gabriel Bethlen and the garments of his widow, Princess 
Catherine von Brandenburg, which were left in the castle of Munkacs (Mukachevo) and 
returned to the Princess by Prince George Rakoczi I about 1631 (Radvanszky 1888). 

39. Borsos 1972: 279. 

40. As an exception, coverlets called paplan also belonged to the works of professional 
embroiderers. Many documents provide information about their fabric, lining, and decoration. 
It is also evident from the sources that such coverlets could be ordered or acquired ready made 
from Venetian merchants at Galata (Beke and Barabas 1888: 394, 395, 661-62). For the sale in 
Upper Hungary of fabrics for coverlets, see the inventory of a Greek merchant in Appendix 6, 
part c. Only the highest circles of the nobility purchased their coverlets in Istanbul. Urban 
inhabitants made their own paplans from Turkish fabrics, available locally. 

41. The inventory from the 1720s of the estate of Catherine Bethlen, wife of Michael Apafi II, 
lists eight Turkish and four Hungarian saddles, each of which is described in great detail: 
"Turkish saddle decorated in skofium and beading, with black silk stripes, lined with yellow silk 
satin; another Turkish saddle with gold embroidery and skofium flowers, beautifully decorated 
all over, having golden edgings, and lined with yellow silk satin. Its value is 416 florins and 40 
krajcdrs." Each Turkish saddle in case no. 3 was valued at over 100 florins. Case no. 11 contained 
one Hungarian, one Romanian, and nine Turkish saddles of similar quality, while other cases 
were filled with embroidered saddle covers and saddle blankets (cafrag), many of which were 
probably of Turkish origin. Some of them are described as "of the Sublime Porte" (Jakab 1883: 
786-802). In an inventory dating from 1645, which lists the possessions of Palatine Paul 
Esterhazy at Frakno castle, eight embroidered saddle blankets are described as "of the Sublime 
Porte" (Magyar Gazdasagtbrteneti Szemle, 10, 1903: 172). 

For 17th-century bow and arrow quivers (tirkes and puzdra) in Hungarian collections, see 
Szendrei 1896: 408, nos. 2859, 2861; 409, no. 2865; 410, no. 2870. From the correspondence of 
George Rakoczi I, we learn about quivers made to order in Istanbul (Beke and Barabas 1888: 
105). See also note 42. 

For Turkish and Persian round shields (kalkan) in Hungarian collections, see Szendrei 1896: 
669; 671, no. 3491 (Esterhazy treasury, Frakno, dia. 62 cm, Turkish, 17th century); 691-92, no. 
3543 (Esterhazy treasury, Frakno, dia. 59 cm, probably Persian, 16th-17th century); 573-74, no. 
3255 (Kormend, dia. 63 cm, Turkish, 16th century). Numerous contemporary documents 
mention round shields; see Beke and Barabas 1888: 660-61, 760, 788, 811, 878. 

36 



For horse- trappings and saddle covers, see Beke and Barabas 1888: 45, 105, 205, 240-41, 
260-61, 760, 788, 811, 878. A letter of Prince Bethlen to George Rakoczi I (8 June 1618) informs us 
about a new type of horse-trapping from Dijarbekir. In the same letter Bethlen offers to order 
any kind of goods for Rakoczi from Istanbul (Szilagyi 1879: 97-98). In 16th-century documents, 
Mongol saddles, quivers, and shields are also described (Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 965-66). 

In the collection of the Wawel in Cracow there are a number of Turkish and oriental saddles 
and saddle blankets or saddle covers, round shields, Persian wall-hangings (makat), and 
Turkish and Persian flags. Many of these pieces were part of the booty taken at the battle of 
Vienna in 1683. Szablowski 1971 : fig. 221, 222, 226, 227, 228-29, 230-31, 232, 233-34, 236-37, 
238-39, 241^2, 240; Marikowski 1954; Zygulski 1960; Abrahamowicz 1968; Pachoriski 1934; 
Zygulski 1968; Fischinger 1962, 1963; Swier-Zaleski 1935. 

For Turkish flags, see also Denny 1974; Feher 1968; Egyed 1959. For the Turkish booty now in 
the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, see Petrasch 1970: fig. 2, 10-11, 12-14, 15-17, 23, 25, 
26-27. 

42. Embroidered quivers, for example, were frequently made for Gabriel Bethlen. They were 
ordered from professional embroiderers who had to be supplied with the ground fabric as well 
as with precious yarns, cotton for the padding of raised motifs, pearls, and semi-precious 
stones. The accounts of the prince show that the outlines for the patterning were drawn on the 
ground fabric by professional craftsmen, who probably had their own workshops and who had 
to be paid separately (Radvanszky 1888: 1-157). 

43. Kemeny 1959: 18. 

44. Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, ace. no. 1927.54 (length ca. 600 cm, width ca. 
400 cm). Second half of 17th century. Captured at the battle of Buda in 1686; then in the 
possession of Louis of Baden who gave it to Francis Rakoczi II. Acquired in Vienna in 1927. 
Feher 1961; Feher 1975a: 6-12, pi. 1, col. pi. 1-2. 

Other decorated tents in Hungarian collections include one captured at firsekiijvar (Nove 
Zamky) in the 17th century, formerly in the collection of Paul Esterhazy, Frakno (length 625 cm, 
width 400 cm). Prince Esterhazy also owned a small circular tent. Two tents belonged to Odon 
Batthyany, Kormend castle, near Szombathely (900 x 700 cm; 280 x 220 cm, height of side 
panels 175 cm). For the latter, see Szendrei 1896: 604-6, no. 3322. Batthyany also owned a 
circular tent ox oba (dia. 580 cm). Feher 1961; Feher 1975a: 6-12; Batky 1930. 

45. In the collection of the Wawel in Cracow, there are three complete, finely decorated Turkish 
tents (ace. nos. 1211, 1028, 1210) and the side panels of a Persian garden tent. Marikowski 1959; 
Szablowski 1971: fig. 213-18; Gasiorowski 1959, 1952. Other tents are preserved at the 
Heeresmuseum, Vienna (590 x 370 cm, dia. 980 cm), see Erben and John 1903: 77, 140-42; at 
the Bayerische Armee-Museum, Munich (taken at the battle of Nagyharsany, Hungary, in 1678, 
believed to have belonged to the Grand Vizier Suleiman); and in Dresden (Feher 1961; Feher 
1975a:6-12). A panel of a tent with applied ornaments (length 210 cm, width 186 cm) is in the 
collection of the Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Petrasch 1970: fig. 48). 

46. Feher 1975a: 9. 

47. Beke and Barabas 1888: 394, 395-96, 437, 510, 512, 552, 553, 745, 779. 

48. Beke and Barabas 1888: 394. About tent-making in Istanbul, see Uzuncarsili 1945: 453-54. 
The meaning of the Hungarian word kalitka is cage. In this example, /ca/if/ca-tent might refer to a 
tent with lattice windows. There is, nevertheless, another possibility for the interpretation of 
the meaning of our source. Kalitka could be a deformed variant of the Turkish word kalikut, 
meaning calico, with reference to the cotton fabric of the tent. 

49. Beke and Barabas 1888: 396. 

50. Michael Maurer was the leader of a Transylvanian delegation to Istanbul in January 1640. 
From July to December of that year, he served as Rakoczi' s ambassador to the Sublime Porte. 

51. Balthasar Sebesi served as kapi kethiidasi from July 1640 to December 1641. 

52. Beke and Barabas 1888: 512. 

53. Letter of Stephen Szalanczi to Rakoczi (Beke and Barabas 1888: 779). 

54. Karacson 1911: 39 no. XXXII and 92 no. LXXXVIII; Feher 1975a: 9-10, with reference to 
Turkish documents in the Archives of the Topkapi Sarayi Miizesi (decree of 1718, ordering the 
tent superintendent to deliver six tents from the armoury to Francis Rakoczi II; document of 
1722). 

37 



55. Jakab 1883: 797. 

56. Turkish tents are often listed in Hungarian inventories from the 15th to the mid-18th 
century, though it is not always clear whether the examples were plain or decorated. In 1595 an 
ornate tent was captured from the Turks by Hungarians at Esztergom (Feher 1961 : 222), and an 
inventory from 1610 describes an elaborately decorated variant (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 141). 
In a few cases, Persian tents are also noted (Radvanszky 1888: 254). 

For tents acquired for princes of Transylvania, see Borsos 1972; Beke and Barabas 1888: 745; 
Radvanszky 1888: 1-157. In 1645 Rakoczi ordered Stephen Seredi to have forty panels, 
requiring 150 lengths of cotton fabric, and the necessary cotton ropes made for the "courtyard" 
(udvar) of his tent. In addition, he requested four tents, two of which needed twenty ropes each, 
and the other two sixteen ropes each. 

57. Beke and Barabas 1888: 116. 

58. Stephen Racz served as kapi kathudast from October 1641 to December 1642. 

59. Beke and Barabas 1888: 595. 

60. Beke and Barabas 1888: 868. The rugs of Karamania in southern Anatolia, near the Taurus 
mountains, were well known in 16th- and 17th-century Hungary and were usually referred to 
as kdrmdny szonyeg. 

61. For commercial connections with Europe, see Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 111-14 
(1603: Vienna), 143^7 (1612: Vienna), 197-204 (1614: Vienna), 205-11 (1618: Vienna); Rad- 
vanszky 1888: 1-157 (1615-27: Cracow, Gdansk, Linz, Prague, Venice, and Vienna). 

62. Gervers-Molnar 1973; Gervers 1975, 1978. 

63. Among the many representations, the depiction of the three Magi from the Gospels of Tsar 
John Alexander of Bulgaria is of particular interest (1355-56; British Library, London, Add. Ms. 
39627, 9r. and v., 10r.). The illuminations are painted in Byzantine style. The language is 
Slavonic of Bulgarian character. In the miniature of the Epiphany, the Magi, as they approach 
the Christ child, appear wearing striped turbans and coats with pendant sleeves. When leaving 
on horseback, however, their sleeves are tied together at the back. Ottoman Turks are depicted 
in similar kaftans with tied sleeves on 16th-century woodcuts (see the dust-cover of 
Kimondhatatlan nyomonisdg, 1976; the source of this representation is not specified). The siguni of 
Macedonian Vlachs has slightly tapered long sleeves, which are joined together at the back. 
They apparently derive from a medieval Turkish fashion and recall the coats worn relatively 
recently by Turkmen women (Gervers-Molnar 1973: 19, n. 132). Some of the gunas worn by 
Macedonian women also have their vestigial sleeves joined at the back (Gervers 1975: 64; fig. 
21). In the 18th century bostanas (Turkish palace guards) wore a mantle with vestigial sleeves 
tied at the back (Tuchelt 1966: pi. 48). This fashion is also commonly known from western 
Turkestan (Allgrove 1975; Gervers 1978). 

64. Csanki 1883: 659. Other sources also note the long garments worn by Hungarians in the last 
third of the 15th century. Whether sleeved or sleeveless, these long mantles were called turca by 
the Italians, and suba by the Hungarians. Long shirts were also common in Hungary 
(Varju-Ember 1962). 

65. Fogel 1913: 141^4. 

66. Radvanszky 1888: 284-89. 

67. Thalyl878. 

68. Jakab 1883: 798 (case no. 23). These coats may have been similar to a figured velvet garment 
in the collection of the Royal Armoury, Stockholm (ace. no. 3414; Persian, Safavid period, first 
half of 17th century). This coat was a gift from the Tsar of Russia to Queen Christina of Sweden 
in 1644. Geijer 1951: no. 31, pi. 15; The Arts of Islam 1976: 110, no. 84. 

69. Radvanszky 1888: 268, 269, 291, 329, 330; Zoltai 1938: 26-27. 

70. For references, see Beke and Barabas 1888. 

71. Szendrei 1896: 670-73, no. 3492 (castle of Borostyanko | Bernstein /Paistum], former 
property of the Almasy family; length 111 and 125 cm, 17th century; now in the Hungarian 
National Museum, Budapest, ace. no. 69.80.C; acquired from Princess Mary Esterhazy, widow 
of Count John Almasy, in 1969). Feher 1975a: 12-14, col. pi. 3-6, fig. 2-10. Also Szendrei 1896: 
675-76, no. 3497 (former property of the Departmental Historical Committee of Brasso 
[Kronstadt/Brasov]; 17th century; length 126 cm). 

38 



72. Szendrei 1896: 600-2, no. 3314 (including two kaftans from the early 17th century, a 
16th-century round shield, a belt, a turban, and spears). 

73. Bobrovszky (1978) noted that while the merchants in such large cities as Szeged, 
Kecskemet, Nagykoros, and Cegled took an active part in the trade of Turkish garments and 
textiles, the Hungarian inhabitants did not appear to have acquired such articles for themselves 
or for their churches. Turkish luxury goods, on the other hand, especially textiles, were very 
popular in those parts of the country that were not directly controlled by the Ottomans. 
Bobrovszky concludes that the Christians of the occupied territories made every effort not to be 
"Turkicized", and rejected even the material goods which could have linked them with the 
"pagan enemy". This moral stand was strengthened, if not provoked, by the preaching of some 
well-known Protestant ministers of the period. According to Paul Farkas of Tiir, minister of 
Tolna in 1556-57, "someone putting a Turkish hat on his head cannot be saved from becoming a 
Turk himself. 

74. Takats 1928: 532-33. 

75. Takats, Eckhardt, and Szekfu 1915: 278; Feher 1974; and Feher 1975a. 

76. Takats 1928: 518. 

77. Decsy 1789 (part 2): 186-87 (regarding the custom in general); Karacson 1904 (vol. 2): 128; 
Szekely 1912: 59-72 (kaftans were presented on several occasions to Emericus Thokoly and his 
entourage, and to his representatives); Takats 1928: 19 (garments given to Nicholas Zrinyi); 
Szalay 1862: 20 (Stephen Bathory and twenty-five members of his entourage received garments 
from Sultan Selim); Karacson 1914: 184 (Stephen Bocskay received a Turkish garment from 
Sultan Ahmet I for his victory of 1605); Bartfai Szabo 1904: 162 (Uluman bey sent a garment to 
George Martinuzzi in 1566). See also Beke and Barabas 1888: 392, 465; Toth 1900; Zoltai 1938: 
26-27; Palotay 1940: 12-14; Mikes 1966: 17-18, 219, 220-22, 222-23 (1718, 1737, 1738). For 
Benedikt Kuripesics' description of a Hungarian delegation at the Sublime Porte in 1530, see 
Tardy 1977: 159. 

78. Beke and Barabas 1888: 465. 

79. Thomas Borsos (1566-1634) was the leader of three Transylvanian delegations to Istanbul 
(1613, 1618-20, 1626-27). 

80. Borsos 1972: 70-71. Qavu% Jusuf was the interpreter of the Transylvanian ambassador to the 
Sublime Porte (d. 1619). 

81. Borsos 1972: 99. For further references to this custom, see Borsos' descriptions of the 
reception of other delegations. The members of a German embassy were offered forty-four 
kaftans. A Persian embassy was received in even greater splendour. The Persian ambassador 
was given "a very beautiful kaftan, the kind worn by the Sultan himself", and members of his 
delegation "also received good kaftans, about sixty of them all together". Members of a Tartar 
embassy, however, were offered only nine kaftans. 

82. Quoted by Palotay 1940: 13. 

83. Szilagyi 1875 (vol. 1): 238-44; Lukinich 1927: 86; Palotay 1940: 13. 

84. Hornyik 1861 (vol. 2): 34-35; Palotay 1940: 13. 

85. Szekely 1912: 59; Palotay 1940: 13. 

86. For Hungarian costume, see Bielz 1936; Biro 1944; Cenner-Wilhelmb 1975; Egyed 1965; 
Galavics 1975; Garas 1953; Hollrigl 1938a, 1938b; Krekwitz 1688; Szendrei 1908; Varju-Ember 
1966-67; mss. in the libraries of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, and the 
Romanian Academy of Sciences, Bucharest. For representations of Hungarians in Turkish 
miniatures, see Feher 1975b. For costume worn throughout the Balkans and in eastern Europe, 
see Bileckiy 1968; Dobrowolski 1948; Gjergji 1967; Musicescu 1962; Nicolescu 1970a, 1970b; 
Taszycka 1968. A wide variety of Turkish costume is shown in Tuchelt 1966. 

87. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 302-4. 

88. Radvanszky 1888: 254, 290. 

89. Radvanszky 1888: 269. 

90. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 3024. 

91. Thalloczy 1878: 510-32. 

92. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 319-25 (1656). 

39 



93. Radvanszky 1888: 254, 335. 

94. Thalloczy 1878: 519. 

95. Zoltai 1938: 27. 

96. Jakab 1883: 794 (case no. 23, inventory of 1729); Beke and Barabas 1888: 380. Cited among 
the possessions of Gabriel Bethlen was a Janissary hat of red velvet, adorned with skofium. 
Velvet hats to be made in Istanbul were also ordered for the prince (Radvanszky 1888: 385, nos. 
1-157). 

97. Jewelled agrafs were commonly noted in various inventories, and depicted in contempo- 
rary portrait painting. For actual examples, see Szendrei 1896: 737-38 (no. 4408, probably 
Transylvanian work, 16th century; belonged to Stephen Bathory); Alcsuti 1940: pi. 20-21; 
Mihalik 1961: 34; Hejj-Detari 1965: figs. 34 (late 17th century), 36-37 (late 17th century); 
Hejj-Detari 1975: 528, fig. 24; Devenyi-Kelemen 1961. 

98. Jakab 1883: 794. In 1613 Thomas Borsos acquired blue slipper-type shoes, worn by both 
men and women, with foot-cloths, in Istanbul (Borsos 1972: 76). Other sources provide detailed 
information on foot-cloths, some of which were made of silk and adorned with embroidery 
(Beke and Barabas 1888: 817-18). For pacsmag, see Kakuk 1954; and for actual examples of shoes, 
Feher 1975a: fig. 11. In the 16th century, however, green and blue-grey high boots were not 
worn by the Hungarians of the Turkish-occupied parts of the country. Since green was the 
colour of the Prophet, the wearing of this type of footwear would have been interpreted as a 
sign of sympathy for the faith of Islam. Christians in fact were forbidden by the Church to have 
such boots (Bobrovszky 1978). 

99. Thalloczy 1878: 520. 

100. Beke and Barabas 1888: 379, 552-53, 614, 620. 

101. Beke and Barabas 1888: 553. 

102. Beke and Barabas 1888: 614. 

103. Beke and Barabas 1888: 620. 

104. Beke and Barabas 1888: 379, 510-12, 552, 554-55, 595, 627, 788, 817. 

105. The excavations of the Roman Catholic church at Sarospatak were carried out under the 
direction of the author in 1964-65. For the sprang sashes, see Varju-Ember 1968: 155-60, fig. 
92-95. Varju-Ember also refers to a fragment of a sprang sash in the collection of the Bakony 
Museum, Veszprem, which is said to have come to light at Szentbenedekhegy in 1903. For 
sprang, see Collingwood 1974. 

106. Sobo 1910: 47. 

107. Radvanszky 1888: 287. 

108. Jakab 1883: 796 (case no. 31). 

109. Hejj-Detari 1975: 487, 516 (fig. 10). Museum of Decorative Arts, Budapest, Textile 
Collections, ace. no. 52.2370. 

110. Gervers-Molnar 1973: 43, 124 (fig. 61); Gervers 1978; Treiber-Netoliczka 1968: 25-26, 52, 
53, pi. 65, 68, 69. 

111. Wilbush 1972. 

112. Cf. Start and Durham 1939; Jugoslawische Volkskunst 1959: 10-11 (Macedonia), 12 (Bosnia); 
Braun and Schneider 1975: pis. 107 (Dalmatia), 108 (Yugoslavian Macedonia), 110 (Lebanon; 
Damascus, Syria). See also notes 113-17 infra. 

113. Such outfits were particularly characteristic in Albania. Baggy trousers were also 
frequently worn underneath fashionable 19th-century dress in Greece, together with elaborate 
long coats, or short, waist-length jackets of oriental origin. Benaki 1948: pi. 35-36 (Epirus), 68 
(Hydra). 

114. Simpler versions of such jackets were worn over characteristic long Balkan gowns, made 
of linen or cotton (see note 117). In Attica, however, the double jackets used for festive 
occasions and as part of bridal attire had velvet edgings and laid and couched embroidery of 
metallic braids (rom, ace. no. 910.95.1-2; Benaki 1948: pi. 13-14). 

115. Benaki 1948: pi. 1 (outfit worn by general, 1835), 5 (diplomatic costume, 1833-70), 6-8 
(costumes of upper-class bourgeoisie, 1835), 9 (Peloponnese, costume of upper-class 
bourgeoisie, 1835), 22 (costume worn by villagers of Navpaktos). 

40 



116. Benaki 1948: pi. 11 (court dress, inspired by village costume of Attica, reign of George I of 
Greece, 1867-1913). The Art Museum in Bucharest has a good collection of 18th- and 
19th-century Romanian court costumes made in the Turkish fashion. A 19th-century Romanian 
outfit is at the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Related 
garments from Serbia are depicted on innumerable 19th-century portraits. 

117. Gervers 1975: 64, fig. 20-21; Benaki 1948: pi. 12, 15, 16, 22, 24, 25, 30, 33, 40-42, 57, 58; 
Klickova and Petruseva 1963; Zojzi 1971; Jugoslawische Volkskunst 1959: 9, 14-15, 18-19; 
Banajteanu et al. 1958. 

118. Similar tendencies are known from elsewhere in the Islamic world. In Morocco, for 
example, the grande robe of Jewish women, cut in the fashion of 17th-century Spanish costume, 
was adorned with couched embroidery and metallic braiding in an Ottoman style 
(Muller-Lancet 1976). The general appearance of this type of costume shows close associations 
with the jacket-type coats of the Balkans. Such coats, however, were not unique in the mode of 
European Turkey, but were widely worn throughout the Ottoman Empire. 

119. Gervers 1975: 64, fig. 21. See also note 63 supra. 

120. Schulz 1912: 44. 

121. Select bibliography: Berker and Durul n.d.; Berry 1932, 1938; Geijer 1951; Gentles 1964; 
Gonul 1969; Dietrich 1911; Palotay 1940, 1954. For the influence of Turkish embroidery upon 
Hungarian needlework, see Palotay 1927, 1940, 1941, 1954; Tapay-Szabo 1941; Varju-Ember 
1963, 1972. 

122. See note 36. 

123. Takats 1928: 532-33; Mikes 1966: 11 (Edirne, 7 November 1717); Takats, Eckhardt, and 
Szekfu 1915: 10 (Murat, aga of the Janissaries in Buda, gave a kerchief to Stephen Dob6 in 
1560). For the custom in Turkey, see Berry 1932, 1938; Montagu 1965. Charles White, an Eng- 
lish traveller, provides detailed information about this custom that survived into the mid-19th 
century: "Muslin and cotton handkerchiefs (makrama, yaghk) . . . are employed less, perhaps, 
for the purposes to which such articles are applied in Europe, than for that of folding up money, 
linen, and other things. In the houses of the great men, there is always a makramaa ba§i, whose 
principal duty is to take care of these and other similar articles. No object, great or small, is 
conveyed from one person to another; no present is made — even fees to medical men — unless 
folded in a handkerchief, embroidered cloth, or piece of gauze. The more rich the envelope, the 
higher the compliment to the receiver." White also notes that "when the Sultan honours 
individuals by bestowing upon them a gift, the present, whether consisting of fruits, sweet 
meats, or wearing apparel, is always enclosed in an embroidered cloth, kerchief, or gauze, in 
the same manner as is practised in the transmission of letters" (White 1845 [vol. 2] : 104-5). On 
the "guardian of handkerchiefs" or makramaa in the households of great persons and the 
sultan, see White 1845 (vol. 1): 193, 214. For the historical background of the custom in the 
Islamic world in general, see Rosenthal 1971. 

124. Palotay 1940: 19. 

125. Palotay 1940: 25-28. 

126. Palotay 1940: 26 

127. Palotay 1940: 20; Takats 1915: 270 (1607). 

128. Numerous examples are cited by Palotay (1940: 21-23). In the 16th- and 17th-century 
inventories, published by Radvanszky (1879 [vol. 2], the following Turkish embroideries are 
noted: one kerchief in the estate of Matthew Jo, Nagyszombat (1570, no. 29, 22-26); one 
kerchief among the goods of Gaspar Horvath (1579, no. 33, 27-33); two kerchiefs owned by 
Francis Chery (1599, no. 53, 92-98); one kerchief embroidered in gold in the estate of Stephen 
Tatay (1607, no. 65, 119-27); six long kerchiefs (one of these worked in skofium gold), eight to be 
carried as handkerchiefs, and three worked in gold yarn among the goods inherited by the 
Marothy and Viczay families (1610, 139—43); seven kerchiefs in the dowry of Helen Christine 
Woiszka (1647, no. 128, 293-98); two kerchiefs worked in Hungarian gold yarn (presumably 
made in Hungary by Turkish bulyas), three in silk, and an unspecified piece (1651, no. 137, 
311-15). 

129. Palotay 1936; 1940: 25-28; Posta 1944; Polgar 1916; Felvinczi Takach 1934; Kelemen 1913. A 
large collection of such embroideries together with a wide selection of archival data from 
Calvinist churches of eastern Hungary is housed in the museum of the Calvinist College, 
Sarospatak, Hungary. 

41 



130. Also used in Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Albanian, and Greek. Benko 1967 
(vol. 1): 387-88; Szabo 1976: 1092. 

131. Palotay 1940: 24-25. 

132. Takats 1915: 292. 

133. Takats 1915: 293. 

134. Lukcsics 1935: 343. 

135. Borsos 1972: 167. 

136. Letters from 1609 and 1611, quoted by Takats 1926: 456 and 1928: 52. See also Palotay 
1940: 24. 

137. Takats 1914: 24. 

138. In 1595 we read of a "pillow-case embroidered in Turkish stitches, without gold" (dowry 
of Catherine Karolyi); in 1603, about aprons, face veils, and sheets worked in Turkish stitches 
with gold, silver, and silk (dowry of Susanne Thurzo); in 1627, about fringed kerchiefs, cushion 
covers, and bed hangings worked in Turkish stitches; and in 1671, of "a tablecloth embroidered 
all over in Turkish stitches with pure silk" (dowry of Susanne Divekiijfalussy). Radvanszky 
1879 (vol. 2): 76-91 (no. 48), 104-11 (no. 59), 249-51 (no. 106), 351-55 (no. 155). See also 
Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 1010. 

139. Mentioned in 1595 are "a pillow-case embroidered in kazul (Persian) stitches in pink silk 
and some gold" and "a light linen kerchief worked in kazul stitches across both ends, without 
gold thread", and another embroidered "with standing flowers above a border of carnations" 
(dowry of Catherine Karolyi). Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 76-91 (no. 48). For additional 
examples, see also Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 465. 

140. A stitch frequently referred to as the "stitch of the Sublime Porte" appears to have been 
characteristic of works executed on heavier fabrics by professional embroiderers. A coverlet 
adorned with flowers in "stitches of the Sublime Porte" was mentioned in the castle of 
Munkacs (Palotay 1940: 23). Other kinds of stitches appear to have been associated with saddle 
blankets. In the dowry of Claire Divekiijfalussy (1688), three cushion covers of red satin are 
described as embroidered in cafrag (i.e., saddle blanket) stitches with gold and silver flowers 
(Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 378). 

141. Mahraman and makrama (from Arabic mahrama; first mentioned in Hungarian sources in 
1560); tesztemeny/ tesztenel (from Persian dest-mal' , and Ottoman Turkish destemal). Kakuk 1954. 
For makrama, see also notes 123, 149; and for pe$temal, note 36. 

142. M. Bethlen 1864: 267-68. 

143. K. Bethlen 1963: 206-7. 

144. Apor 1927: 9. 

145. Palotay 1937. Several examples of this type of embroidered scarves from the Kalotaszeg 
district of Transylvania are in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. 

146. An example from the village of Karcsa, Bodrogkoz district, north-eastern Hungary, was 
acquired by the author in 1963. 

147. For illustrative material about Turkish influences upon Greek embroideries, see Benaki 
Museum 1965a, 1965b, 1966; Krarup 1964; Johnstone 1961, 1972; Wace 1935. 

148. Bossert 1968: pi. 14; 20; 23: 6, 13, 15; 24: 10; 25. 

149. Dokuma makramalar (exhibition catalogue) 1972. The Royal Ontario Museum has an 
extensive collection of such towels from Anatolia (Gervers 1973: 10). For the use of such towels 
in Istanbul, see Celal 1946: 2. 

150. The Royal Ontario Museum and the Benaki Museum, Athens, possess many examples in 
their collections. 

151. Bossert 1968: pi. 19: 2; 33: 12, 15. There is a large collection of Romanian towels with 
woven decoration across their narrow ends in the Royal Ontario Museum. The majority of the 
pieces come from Transylvania. A Croatian and some Romanian examples were acquired by the 
author. For further Romanian examples, see Banafeanu 1969; Banafeanu et al. 1958; Catalogul 
Muzeului de Arta Populara (exhibition catalogue) 1957. The same techniques and ornamentation 
were also common for pillow-cases, wall hangings, and other furnishings in Transylvania, and 
for bed covers in Croatia. 



42 



152. A summary of this chapter is published in Scarce 1979. 

153. Bode and Kuhnel 1955; Csanyi 1914; Erdmann 1962a, 1962b; Jajczai 1935, 1942; Kiihlbrandt 
1898; Schmutzler 1933; Siklossy 1925; Teutsch 1881; Zigura 1966. 

154. Eichhorn 1968, with extensive reference material to original sources and to commercial 
connections and trade routes with Wallachia and Moldavia. See also Dan and Goldenberg 1967; 
Iorga 1937; Manolescu 1955; review of Eichhorn by Beattie; Schmutzler 1933. I am indebted to 
Mr. Charles Grant Ellis for bringing these references to my attention. 

155. Although unconnected with carpet studies, a wide selection of archival references from 
Transylvania has been collected by B. Nagy 1970: 101-13, 270-74. 

156. For a good summary of the difficulties and discrepancies of this problem, see Ellis 1975. I 
am grateful to Mr. Ellis for sharing with me his thoughts on oriental and orientalizing carpets 
from Transylvania and the Balkans. 

157. Cf. inventory of the Zichy family, ca. 1450: "Item unus carpotelentus vulgo carpith" 
(Lukcsics 1931 [vol. 12]: 224-25). The walls of the palace of King Mathias Corvinus Hunyadi of 
Hungary were adorned with Turkish rugs and Flemish tapestries, and his tables were covered 
with silk carpets into which the coats-of-arms of the king and queen were woven (Zolnay 1977: 
276). Zolnay also mentions that in 1231 the widow of ispdn Bors appears to have had Greek or 
oriental rugs. 

158. Eichhorn 1968: 73, n.5. 

159. Schmutzler 1933. 

160. Eichhorn 1968: 73, n.4. 

161. Eichhorn 1968: 73 and n.3. 

162. Fogel 1913: 144; Palotay 1940: 15. 

163. B. Nagy 1970: 107. Eichhorn (1968) notes carpets among wedding gifts of the well-to-do 
burgher families, some of which were donated to churches. For the continuation of this custom 
in early 17th-century Hungary, see note 185. 

164. Bobrovszky 1978. 

165. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 3. 

166. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 30, 47. 

167. Geresi 1885: 604-5; Molnar 1975: 3. 

168. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 124-26. 

169. B. Nagy 1970: 108. 

170. B. Nagy 1970: 107-8. In 1656 a tablecloth of file work was described "to be placed over a 
rug" in George Berenyi's inventory from Bodok castle. In the same source, two cloths were also 
noted for the covering of Jewish rugs (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2[: 319-25, no. 142). 

171. B. Nagy 1970: 108, 140-41, according to an Urbarium of 1629, Historical Archives of the 
Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca), ms., no. 2509. 

172. B. Nagy 1970: 141, according to the inventory (1647) of the estate of General Stephen 
Kassai's children, Kiralyfalva, Historical Archives of the Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar 
(Cluj-Napoca), Archive of the Lazar family from Gyalakuta, fasc. 48, no. 16. 

173. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 183-84. 

174. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 310, 325. 

175. B. Nagy 1970: 108. 

176. B. Nagy 1970: 108-9, 110, according to the inventory (1692) of the Apor House at 
Kolozsvar, Historical Archives of the Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca), Korda 
Archives, no. CCCLX.l. 

177. B. Nagy 1970: 108; Baranyai 1962. Some of these carpets were listed in various inventories 
after Bethlen's death (Radvanszky 1888: 254, 258-59, 294-95, 337, 357, 386). According to the 
prince's account books, many examples were acquired directly in Istanbul. Purchased in that 
city in 1622 were four large and eight smaller silk rugs, in 1624 ten divan rugs, and in 1625 
twenty-five rugs without further specification (Radvanszky 1888: 1-157). 

178. B. Nagy 1970: 108; Koncz 1887: 381, 389, 390. 

179. Szadeczky 1911: 115, 116. 

43 



180. Szadeczky 1911: 156. 

181. Szadeczky 1911: 153. 

182. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 5. 

183. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 134. 

184. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 140. 

185. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 183-84. In 1620 Count Thurzo gave five rugs to his son, 
Emericus. In 1618 the dowry of Countess Mary included one large red and two large white rugs 
in addition to a medium-size white rug. Rugs so large that they were destined for the covering 
of two tables appear also in other inventories (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 192, 244, 27-33). 

186. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 365. 

187. The research of B. Nagy brought to light a rich selection of references to various carpets 
used for the covering of tables in Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries (B. Nagy 1970: 108, 
110, 138-39, 140-41). In 1591 "rugs of nice new types" were listed among goods acquired in 
Istanbul; these pieces were "a bit larger than those for tables". In 1629 "worn and new white 
carpets" and a "multicoloured carpet on white ground" were noted at Szentdemeter. In the 
same year, carpets "with gold weave" and "with white flowers and interwoven in silver", a 
divan rug, and a "red divan rug to cover two tables" are known from Gyulafehervar (Alba 
Iulia). In 1634 Francis Macskasi's mansion at Biizasbocsard had tables covered with rugs. In 
1637 an inventory from Kolozsvar mentions a worn red rug used for the same purpose. In 1647 
a white carpet is listed at Drasso, and a variety of types from Kiralyfalva (new white; patterned 
with "jackdaws", i.e., bird carpet; multicoloured). In 1656 a worn rug is known from Bocsar, 
and a "multicoloured rug on a red ground" from Doboka. In 1661 a "Seckler" rug was listed at 
Bethlen, and a red carpet from the estate of Akos Barcsai's widow. In 1679 white and black rugs 
covered tables at Kentelke. In 1690 a worn red rug and a scarlet rug are noted in the castle of 
Bethlen; in 1692 "a rug with casettes" (tablas szonyeg) in the Apor House of Kolozsvar; and in 
1694 a white example in the castle of Kovar. In later documents the colours or patterning of rugs 
is rarely specified, even if their function (i.e., their use for covering tables) is mentioned (1696, 
castle of Bethlen; 1697, mansion of Nicholas Bethlen at Torda; 1724 and 1748, Koronka; 1754, 
Banffy House at Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt/Sibiu; 1792, Sulemend). In 1736, however, we 
learn about a "multicoloured rug with flowering pattern and tassels" from Mikefalva, and in 
1755 about a "peasant rug" from Ludas. 

188. Turkish rugs were used for the covering of tables at Szilagyperecsen (1806) and 
Uzdiszentpeter (1810) (B. Nagy 1970: 138-39). 

189. Eichhorn 1968: 76. 

190. B. Nagy 1970: 109. 

191. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 5. 

192. Belenyesi 1959: 199. 

193. I. Nagy 1876: 227. 

194. 1629, Szentdemeter (B. Nagy 1970; see note 171). 

195. 1629, Szentdemeter; 1681, Vajdahunyad (Hunedoara); 1682, Gyulafehervar; 1696, Bethlen 
(B. Nagy 1970; Szadeczky 1911: 473). 

196. 1647, Kiralyfalva (B. Nagy 1970: 105; see note 172). 

197. Listed in an inventory of the mansion at Doboka are "saddle-blanket" or csujtar rugs for 
the wall (1659). One of them, a somewhat used piece, was red, and finished in fringes. B. Nagy 
1970: 105, from the papers of Emericus Miko in the Historical Archives of the Romanian 
Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca), limbus. 

198. For detailed references see the discussion of kilims. 

199. Noted among the carpets of Stephen Bethlen are "twelve keges or felt rugs for the wall" (B. 
Nagy 1970: 105). In 1629 a colourful kege was described on the wall of the mansion at 
Szentdemeter (see note 171). 

200. Eichhorn 1968: 76-77. 

201. See note 176. 

202. Szadeczky 1911: 117(1668). 

203. Koncz 1887: 38; Thalloczy 1878: 517. 

44 



204. It is possible that the only single- purpose rugs were those intended for round tables. 
According to Charles Grant Ellis, however, there is no evidence for the survival of a clearly 
genuine round rug of this period from either Turkey or Egypt. The example published by 
Erdmann (1970: 198, fig. 252) was considered dubious and has disappeared. Ellis tends to 
believe that square or rectangular rugs may have been used on round tables as well (personal 
communication, 1977). For round and other "table rugs", see also Yetkin 1974: fig. 63-64. 

205. Charles Grant Ellis argues that silk rugs could have been made in considerable numbers in 
16th- and 17th-century Turkey. Although no trace remains of the Anatolian examples, others of 
Cairo manufacture are known (personal communication, 1977). Eichhorn (1968: 81-82) devotes 
a special section to Persian carpets; see also Beattie. All references to Persian carpets are from 
the 17th century. It is during this period that references to Persian rugs also increase in western 
European inventories. Commercial connections increased between East and West at that time. 

206. Beke and Barabas 1888: 407-8. 

207. B. Nagy 1970: 110. 

208. Borsos 1972: 279. 

209. Beke and Barabas 1888: 788. 

210. Beke and Barabas 1888: 512. 

211. Radvanszky 1888: 294-95. 

212. Jakabl883: 797. 

213. B. Nagy 1970: 109. 

214. For full reference, see note 172. 

215. B. Nagy 1970: 109, 274 (references of 1635, 1637, 1675). 

216. B. Nagy 1970: 272-73, from the papers of the Josika family, Historical Archives of the 
Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca), limbus. 

217. For references, see B. Nagy 1970. 

218. B. Nagy 1970: 109. 

219. B. Nagy 1970: 109, from the papers of the Josika family, fasc. 13, no. 7, Historical Archives 
of the Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca). 

220. Tablas szonyeg, and kocka mbdra szott karpit (B. Nagy 1970: 110). 

221. Inventory of Stephen Tatay's estate, 1607; and goods left for the Marothy and Viczay 
families, 1610 (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 119-27, 139-43). 

222. Dowry of Christine Tassy, wife of Peter Szentivanyi (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 307). 

223. For full reference, see note 172. 

224. Apor House. For full reference, see note 176. 

225. B. Nagy 1970, from the Iktari Bethlen papers, Reg. VI, fasc. CXCV, no. 6, Historical 
Archives of the Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca). For additional references, see 
Eichhorn 1968. 

226. B. Nagy 1970 contains innumerable references from Transylvania about the various 
colours of carpets. Red carpets are mentioned in documents dating from 1587-89, 1599, 1615, 
1620, 1628, 1629, 1634, 1637, 1647, 1655, 1661, 1662; white carpets from 1587-89, 1599, 1604, 
1620, 1629, 1634, 1647, 1662, 1680; a black carpet from 1679; and yellow carpets from 1611, 1615, 
1655, 1656. In 1629 a multicoloured carpet on a white ground is mentioned. Other references 
note multicoloured carpets without further specification (1681, 1744). Eichhorn (1968) gives a 
detailed classification according to the following colours: white (first mentioned in 1568), yellow 
(first mentioned in 1572), red (first mentioned in 1585-91), and brown (first mentioned in 1588). 

227. See Eichhom's identifications (1968). For the limitations of such identifications, see Ellis 
1975. 

228. According to numerous 17th-century inventories, the Hungarian word szonyeg, referring 
to carpets or rugs, did not always mean knotted, flat-woven, or felt varieties, but could also 
refer to embroidered rugs or covers. Such examples were usually worked in skofium and /or 
metallic file on a velvet or silk satin ground, and were among the products of professional 
embroiderers. They were always destined to cover tables (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]). 

While the place of manufacture for most of the embroidered rugs remains unspecified in the 
documents, an inventory of Gabriel Bethlen's estate (1631) describes an "Indian rug for a table 

45 



worked with skofium gold over a red velvet ground". Another inventory of the prince lists a 
so-called divan rug of red velvet which was embroidered in skofium. It was probably made in 
Istanbul (Radvanszky 1888: 259, 337). When the embroidered decoration is not mentioned in 
the sources, however, it seems quite certain that the word szonyeg can be interpreted meaning 
carpet or rug in the traditional sense. 

229. Pigler 1956: 63, fig. 69 (Count Gaspar Illeshazy, 1648); 63, fig. 70 (Countess Illeshazy, 
1648); 64, fig. 71 (Count Gabriel Illeshazy, 1662); 67, fig. 74 (Countess Rakoczi, 1668); 68, fig. 76 
(Ladislas Gorgey, 1682); 68, fig. 77 (Wolfgang Janoky, 1698). Charles Grant Ellis does not 
believe that any of the rugs depicted on these pictures could be regarded as Anatolian or 
Persian imports (personal communication, 1977). 

230. B. Nagy 1970: 110. 

231. B. Nagy 1970: 108, 110. 

232. B. Nagy 1970: 108. 

233. Voit 1943: 150-52; B. Nagy 1970: 109. 

234. In 16th- and 17th-century Hungary, the word divan/ divany was used in the Turkish sense 
to mean the Turkish Council of State, or frequently the Sublime Porte associated with the 
Council of State. 

235. In Simon Kemeny's palace at Aranyosmeggyes, fourteen ordinary white carpets 
(kbzbnseges feher szonyeg) were listed in 1662. In 1634 Francis Macskasi owned a "common white" 
(kozfejer) carpet in addition to "three common red rugs" (kbzveres szonyeg) (B. Nagy 1970: 109). 

236. Inventory of George Berenyi from 1656, Castle of Bodok (Radvanszky 1879 [vol. 2]: 
319-25). This source also includes twenty-six new and eleven worn Jewish napkins. Although 
specifically Jewish goods are rare in contemporary descriptions, an inventory of Mary Viczay 
(1656) mentions two Jewish tablecloths (ibid). 

237. Ellis 1975. 

238. Petrasch 1970: no. 49. I am grateful to Frau Dr. Eva Zimmermann of the Badisches 
Landesmuseum Karlsruhe for bringing this important rug to my attention, and for providing 
me with photographs and permission to publish the piece. See also Gervers 1978b. 

239. Millar 1966. For a colour reproduction, see the dust-cover of Berti 1971. 

240. Jakab 1883: 794 (case no. 23), 797 (case no. 56). 

241. Urbaria et conscriptiones 1975: 283. 

242. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2) : 367. A coverlet from the first half of the 17th century with similar 
technical characteristics, made of silk and gilt-and-silver-coloured leather, is part of the 
Esterhazy treasury (Museum of Applied Arts, Budapest, ace. no. 52.2801). Within an elaborate 
triple border, the centre field of this example is adorned with a figural scene depicting the feast 
of a Persian prince. This piece may indicate that textiles with mosaic and /or applique work 
were well known both in Persia and Turkey during the 17th century (Hejj-Detari 1975: 495-96, 
fig. 60). Some of the velvet (bdrsony) rugs, frequently mentioned in contemporary documents, 
might also belong to this group. See Szabo 1976, document of 1637/39; and note 228 supra. 

243. Jakab 1883: 797 (case no. 54); Palotay 1940: 15; Beke and Barabas 1888: 811; Takats 1907: 
375. A felt (kege) of camel hair for a bed is noted in an inventory of rugs returned to Catherine 
von Brandenburg by George Rakoczi I in 1633. Large and medium-size keges of the same fabric 
were also acquired for Gabriel Bethlen in 1622 in Istanbul (Radvanszky 1888: 294-95, nos. 51f., 
68-69). 

244. Palotay 1940: 15. 

245. For recent felt rugs from Anatolia, see Gervers and Gervers 1974: 14-29. 

246. Barabas 1881: 176. 

247. See references in notes 199 and 243. 

248. Beke and Barabas 1888: 552-53. 

249. B. Nagy 1970: 105, 271. See also Lupas 1940: 375. 

250. Palotay 1940: 16. 

251. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 365. 

252. B. Nagy 1970: 105. 



46 



253. Szadeczky 1911: 116 (1668, 1671); 125 (1675); 128 (1677); 16 (1672); 218 (1673). In 1670, 
however, "a divan carpet" was given to the prince by the Greek inhabitants of Fogaras/ 
Fagaras (ibid. 13). 

254. Szadeczky 1911: 116-17 (1668). 

255. Hofer and Fel 1975: fig. 570-72; Szabo 1956: 103; Szentimrei 1958a, 1958b; Sziladi 1931: 
81-82. 

256. B. Nagy 1970: 106. 

257. B. Nagy 1970: 106, 146, with archival references. 

258. B. Nagy 1970: 106, from the papers of the Bethlen family at Keresd, Historical Archives of 
the Romanian Academy, Kolozsvar (Cluj-Napoca), limbus. 

259. B. Nagy 1970: 105-6, 144-46, 271-72, with archival references. Such frequent 17th-century 
expressions as "peasant rug" or "common carpet" could also have referred to tapestry-woven 
or other flat-woven types, if not to undecorated examples. 

260. Select bibliography of eastern European flat-woven rugs: for Bulgaria: Stankov 1975; 
Vakarelski 1969: fig. 87-96; Velev 1960; for Greece: Papadopoulos 1969: fig. 45, 122-26, 132, 
139-43; for Poland and the Ukraine: Szuman 1929; Zapasko 1973; Zhuk 1966; for Romania: 
Banateanu 1969; Banateanu et al. 1958; Focsa 1970; Perrescu and Stahl 1966; Tzigara-Samurcas 
ca. 1930; Catalogul Muzeului de Arta Populara 1957; for Transylvania, see note 255; for 
Yugoslavia: Kulisic 1966: fig. 48, 96, and col. pi.; Sobic 1953; Traditional carpets of Serbia, 
exhibition catalogue n.d. 

261. For the economic life of 16th- and 17th-century Istanbul, see Mantran 1962; Mantran n.d. 
Diplomats and travellers also provide important information about the life of the Istanbul 
Bazaar (Busbecq 1927; Montagu 1965; Gautier 1854; Szemere 1870; White 1845; references in 
Tardy 1977). 



47 



Appendix 1 



A chronological outline of the rise and decline of the Ottoman 
Turkish empire in central and eastern Europe 

1. The period of expansion: 1345-1676 

1345 First Ottoman campaign in Europe. 

1352 First Turkish settlement in Europe (Gimpe on the Gallipoli peninsula), 

soon followed by the conquest of Thrace (1354-66). 
1365 Edirne (Adrianople) captured by the Turks. 

Ragusa (Dubrovnik) agreed to pay tribute. 
1366-72 Turkish conquest of central Bulgaria. The Bulgarian ruler accepted vassal 

status. 
1371 Turkish victory over the Serbs at Cirmen. 

1385 Sofia captured by the Turks. 

1386 Nis captured by the Turks. Much of Serbia became a vassal state. 

1389 Major Turkish victory over the Serbs and their Bosnian allies at the first 

battle of Kosovo. 

First Turkish raids into Hungary. 
1391 Skopje captured by the Turks. 

1391-98 First siege of Constantinople. 
1393 The Turks conquered Silistra and eastern Bulgaria. 

1395 Wallachia agreed to pay tribute to the Turks. 

1396 Crusade of European knights defeated at Nikopol. 
1397-99 Turkish raids into Greece and Albania. 

1416 First war with Venice. Turkish naval defeat off Gallipoli. 

1420-21 First Turkish attacks on Transylvania. 

1422 Second siege of Constantinople. 

1423-30 War with Venice. 

1430 Capture of Salonika by the Turks, followed by the Turkish conquest of 

Epirus and southern Albania. 

1439 Bosnia agreed to pay tribute to the Turks. 

1443^44 A crusade against the Turks under Hungarian leadership, after some 

initial successes, was decisively defeated by the Turks at Varna (1444). 

1448 Hungarians defeated by the Turks at the second battle of Kosovo. 

1453 Constantinople captured by the Turks and became the Ottoman capital. 

1455 Moldavia agreed to pay tribute to the Turks. 

1456 Hungarian victory over the Turks at Belgrade. 

1459 Serbia annexed by the Turks. It became a Turkish pa$alik. 

1458-61 Turkish successes — 

Capture of Athens and conquest of most of the Peloponnese. 

Capture of most of Genoa's possessions in the Aegean. 
1463 Conquest of Bosnia. 

1463-79 War between the Turks and Venice. 
1464-79 The Turks conquered northern Albania. 
1468 Turkish raids on Croatia and Dalmatia. 

1475 The Crimean Tatars became vassals of the Turks. 

1476 Wallachia became a vassal state of the Turks. 



48 



1477-78 Turkish raids on the Italian coast. 

1480-81 Siege of Rhodes. 

1482 The Turkish conquest of Herzegovina completed. 

1499 Montenegro (Crna Gora) captured by the Turks. 

1499-1503 War with Venice. The Turks gained many Venetian maritime stations. 

1512 Moldavia became a vassal state of the Turks. 

1521 Belgrade captured by the Turks. 

1522 Turkish conquest of Rhodes. 

1526 Turkish victory over the Hungarians at Mohacs. 

1529 First siege of Vienna. 

1532 Turkish campaign in Hungary. 

1533 The kings of the two Hungarys agreed to pay tribute to the Turks. 
1537-40 War with Venice. Unsuccessful Turkish siege of Corfu. 

1541 Capture of Buda by the Turks, who established a pa$ahk. 

1543^44 Turkish conquests in Hungary. 

1551-62 War with Austria. Further Turkish conquests in Hungary. 

1562 Austria recognized all the Turkish conquests. 

1565 Unsuccessful Turkish siege of Malta. 

1570 War with Venice. The Turks conquered Cyprus. 

1571 Great Turkish naval defeat at Lepanto. 
1593-1606 War with Austria. 

1606 The Austrians ceased to pay tribute to the Turks for their part of Hungary. 

1645-70 War with Venice. 

1663-64 War with Austria. 

1670 Peace with Venice. The Turks acquired Crete. 

1672-76 War with Poland. 

1676 The Turks acquired Podolia and the Polish Ukraine. 

The Ottoman empire in Europe was now at its greatest extent. 

2. The period of decline. The first phase: 1676-1792 



1677-81 

1681 

1682-99 

1683 

1686 

1687 
1699 



1710-11 
1714-18 
1716-18 
1718 

1736-39 

1739 

1768-74 

1769 

1774 



First war with Russia. 

Treaty of Radzin. The Turks gave up the eastern Ukraine. 

War with Austria. 

Second siege of Vienna. 

Turkish losses in Hungary, including Buda. 

The Venetians reconquered most of the Peloponnese. 

Turkish defeat at the second battle of Mohacs. 

Treaty of Karlowitz. Austria received all of Hungary (except the Banat of 

Temesvar), Transylvania, Croatia, and Slavonia. Venice received the 

Peloponnese and most of Dalmatia. Poland regained Podolia. 

War with Russia. 

War with Venice. The Turks reconquered the Peloponnese. 

War with Austria. 

Treaty of Passarowitz. The Turks lost the Banat of Temesvar, northern 

Serbia, and Little Wallachia, but retained the Peloponnese. 

War with Austria and Russia. 

Treaty of Belgrade. The Turks regained northern Serbia and Belgrade. 

War with Russia. The Russians overran Moldavia and Wallachia. 

The Russians captured Jassy and Bucharest. 

Treaty of Kiicuk Kaynarca. Russia received fortresses in the Crimea and a 

protectorate over the territories of the Tatar Khan, but returned all her 

other Turkish conquests. The Austrians occupied Bucovina. 



49 



1783 Russia annexed the Crimea. 

1787-92 War with Russia. 

1788 Austria entered the war. 

1789 The Russians invaded Moldavia and Wallachia. 
The Austrians invaded Bosnia and Serbia. 

1791 The Austrians made peace with the Turks and returned Belgrade. 

1792 Treaty of Jassy. The Russians obtained a boundary on the Dniester River, 
but returned Moldavia and Bessarabia to the Turks. 

3. The period of decline. The second phase — the triumph of nationalism: 1804-1923 



1804-13 Serbian insurrection. 

1812 The Turks ceded Bessarabia to Russia. 

1815-17 Second Serbian insurrection gained semi-autonomy. 

1821-30 Greek war of independence. 

1829 Treaty of Adrianople. Serbian autonomy guaranteed. Moldavia and 
Wallachia obtained autonomy under Russian protection. 

1830 The London Conference. Greece achieved complete independence. 
1848 Insurrection in Wallachia demanding a liberal regime. 

1856 Congress of Paris. Turkey admitted to European concert. 

Russia returned southern Bessarabia to Moldavia. 
1858 Establishment of United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, still 

under Turkish suzerainty. 
1867 The last Turkish troops left Serbia. 

1875 Insurrection in Bosnia-Herzegovina. 
1875-76 Uprising in Bulgaria. 

1876 Serbia declared war on Turkey but was completely defeated. 

1877 Russia declared war on Turkey. 

1878 Treaty of Berlin. Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro were declared 
independent states. Romania ceded southern Bessarabia to Russia but 
gained the Dobrudja. Northern Bulgaria became autonomous, though still 
tributary to the Turks. Eastern Rumelia was put under a Christian 
governor appointed by Turkey. Austria was given a mandate to occupy 
Bosnia-Herzegovina. 

Greece obtained much of Thessaly and Epirus. 
Insurrection in Crete. 
War between Greece and Turkey. 
Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
Bulgaria proclaimed independence. 
Crete proclaimed union with Greece. 
First Balkan War. Albania declared her independence. 
Treaty of London. Turkey renounced all claims to Crete. 

Second Balkan War. 

Treaty of Bucharest. Macedonia divided between Serbia and Greece, with 

a small part to Bulgaria. Greece also received the rest of Epirus. Bulgaria 

received western Thrace. 

Treaty of Constantinople. Turkey received Adrianople and the Maritsa 

River boundary. The only part of Europe now left to Turkey was eastern 

Thrace. 
1918-23 In the aftermath of World War I, both the Ottoman and Austrian empires 

were dissolved. 
1923 Proclamation of the Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal (Atatiirk) was 

elected president. 



1881 
1896-97 
1897 
1908 



1912 
1913 



52 



Appendix 2 



Rulers of the House of Osman 



1300-1324 
1324-1360 
1360-1389 
1389-1402 
1413-1421 
1421-1444 
1444_1446 
1446-1451 
1451-1481 
1481-1512 
1512-1520 
1520-1566 

1566-1574 
1574-1595 
1595-1603 
1603-1617 
1617-1618 
1618-1622 
1622-1623 
1623-1640 
1640-1648 



Osman I 
Orhan 
Murad I 
Bayezid I 
Mehmed I 
Murad II 
Mehmed II 
Murad II 
Mehmed II 
Bayezid II 
Selim I 
Suleyman 

the Magnificent 
Selim II 
Murad III 
Mehmed III 
Ahmed I 
Mustafa I 
Osman II 
Mustafa I 
Murad IV 
Ibrahim 



1648-1687 Mehmed IV 

1687-1691 Suleyman II 

1691-1695 Ahmed II 

1695-1703 Mustafa II 

1703-1730 Ahmed III 

1730-1754 Mahmud I 

1754-1757 Osman III 

1757-1774 Mustafa III 

1774-1789 Abdiilhamid I 

1789-1807 Selim III 

1807-1808 Mustafa IV 

1808-1839 Mahmud II 

1839-1861 Abdiilmecid I 

1861-1876 Abdiilaziz 

1876-1876 Murad V 

1876-1909 Abdiilhamid II 

1909-1918 Mehmed V Resad 

1918-1922 Mehmed VI Vahdeddin 

1922-1924 Abdiilmecid II 

(held title of 

Caliph only) 



53 



Appendix 3 



Rulers of Hungary and Transylvania 

Kings of Hungary from the mid-15th century to the battle of Mohacs (1526) 

1452-1457 Ladislas V of Habsburg 

1458-1490 Matthias Corvinus Hunyadi 

1490-1516 Wladislaw II (Ulaszlo) Jagiello 

1516-1526 Louis II Jagiello 

Habsburg rulers after the battle of Mohacs 

1526-1564 Ferdinand I 

1526-1540 John Zapolyai, counter king 

1564-1576 Maximilian I 

1576-1608 Rudolph 

1608-1619 Mathias II 

1619-1637 Ferdinand II 

1637-1657 Ferdinand III 

1657-1705 Leopold I 

1705-1711 Joseph I 

1711-1740 Charles III 

1740-1780 Maria Theresa 

1780-1790 Joseph II 



Princes of Transylvania 



1526-1540 
1541-1551 
1551-1556 
1556-1559 
1559-1571 



1576-1581 

1581-1599 

1599 

1599-1600 

1601-1602 

1602-1603 

1603 

1604 

1604-1606 

1606-1608 

1608-1613 

1613-1629 

1629-1630 

1630 

1630-1648 



John Zapolyai, king of Hungary and last vajda of Transylvania 

Isabella, widow of John Zapolyai 

(Under Habsburg rule) 

Isabella 

John-Sigismund Zapolyai 

As a result of the Peace of Szatmar in 1565, Zapolyai was forced to 

renounce his royal title, and accept that of the Prince of Transylvania. 

Christopher Bathory 

Sigismund Bathory 

Andrew Bathory, Cardinal 

Michael Viteazul 

Sigismund Bathory 

(Habsburg occupation under General G. Basta) 

Moses Szekely 

(Habsburg occupation under General G. Basta) 

Steven Bocskai 

Sigismund Rakoczi 

Gabriel Bathory 

Gabriel Bethlen 

Catherine von Brandenburg, widow of G. Bethlen 

Steven Bethlen 

George Rakoczi I 



54 



1648-1657 George Rakoczi II 

1657-1658 Frances Rhedey 

1658-1660 Akos Barcsay 

1661-1662 John Kemeny 

1662-1690 Michael Apafi I 

1690 Emericus Thokoly (appointed by the Ottomans) 

1690 Michael Apafi II (elected by the Transylvanians, never took power) 

1692-1704 George Banffy, Habsburg governor of Transylvania 

1704-1711 Francis Rakoczi II 



55 



Appendix 4 



A select bibliography for the political, social, and economic 
history of European Turkey 



BARKAN, 6. L. 

1955 "Quelques observations sur l'organisation economique et sociale des 
villes ottomanes des XVIe et XVIIe siecles". Recueils de la Societe Jean 
Boditi 7: La ville, part 2: Institutions economiques et societe. 
1958 "Essai sur les donnes statistiques des registres de recensement dans 
l'empire ottoman aux XVe siecle". Journal of the Economic and Social 
History of the Orient 1 : 7-36. 
BAYERLE, G. 

1972 Ottoman diplomacy in Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 
BELDICEANU, N. 

1967 Sur les Valaques des Balkans slaves a Tepoque ottomane (1450-1550). Paris: P. 
Geuthner. 

1976 Le monde ottoman des Balkans (1402-1566): Institutions, societe, economic 
London: Variorum Reprints. 

CARTER, F. W. 

1972 Dubrovnik (Ragusa), a classic city-state. London and New York: Seminar 
Press. 
CERNOVODEANU, P. 

1972 England's trade policy in the Levant, 1660-1714. Bibliotheca Historica 
Romaniae, vol. 41, no. 2. Bucharest: Academy of Sciences Publication 
House. 
HANANEL, A. and E. ESKENAZI 

1958 Fontes Hebraici ad res oeconomicas socialesque terrarum Balcanicarum 
1960 pertinentes. Sophia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. 2 vols. Translated 
from Hebrew into Bulgarian; each document with Russian and French 
summaries. 
JELAVICH, C. and B. JELAVICH 

1977 The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920. A History of East 
Central Europe, vol. 8. Seattle and London: University of Washington 
Press. 

JELAVICH, c. and B. JELAVICH, eds. 

1974 The Balkans in transition: Essays on the development of Balkan life and politics 
since the 18th century. Hamden, Conn.: Archon. Reprint edition (1st ed. 
1963). Results of a conference held at the University of California, 
Berkeley, 1960. 

LANDAU, J.M. 

1977 "Hebrew sources for the socio-economic history of the Ottoman 
Empire". Der Islam 54:205-12. 
MILLER, W. 

1896 The Balkans: Romania, Bulgaria, Servia, and Montenegro. London: T. Fisher 

Unwin, and New York: G.P. Putnam's sons. 
1936 The Ottoman Empire and its successors, 1801-1927. 4th ed. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press (1st ed. 1913; reprinted 1966). 

56 



STAVRIANOS, S. 

1958 The Balkans since 1453. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston 

(reprinted 1963). 
STOIANOVICH, T. 

1960 "The conquering Balkan Orthodox merchant", journal of Economic 

History 20:234-313. 
1962 "Factors in the decline of Ottoman society in the Balkans". Slavic Review 

21. 
1967 A study in Balkan civilization. New York: A. A. Knopf. 
SUGAR, P. F. 

1977 Southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, 1354-1804. A History of East 

Central Europe, vol. 5. Seattle and London: University of Washington 

Press. 
TODOROV, N., ed. 

1970 La ville balkauique, XW-XIXe siecles. Studia Balcanica, vol. 3. Sophia: 

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. See especially the following articles: 

J. Perenyi, "Villes hongroises sous la domination ottomane aux 

XVIe-XVIIe siecles. Les chef-lieux de l'administration ottomane", 

25-31. 

T. Stoianovich, "Model and mirror of the premodern Balkan city", 

83-110. 

N. Todorov, "La differentiation de la population urbaine aux XVIlIe 

siecle d'apres des registres ces cadis de Vidin, Sofia, et Ruse", 45-62. 
VUCINICH, W. S. 

1962 "The nature of Balkan society under Ottoman rule". Slavic Review 

21:597-616, 633-38. 
VRYONIS. S., JR. 

1972 "Religious changes and patterns in the Balkans, 14th-16th centuries". 

In Aspects of the Balkans: Continuity and change, ed. by H. Birnbaum and 

S. Vryonis, Jr. The Hague and Paris: Mouton. 



57 



Appendix 5 



Turks and Hungarians: Editions of 15th- to 18th-century sources 
from Hungary and Transylvania 



The following list, organized under specific headings, gives a summary of editions of 
Hungarian source material from the Ottoman Turkish period. The works noted have 
all been used in this monograph and are not intended as a complete survey of 
available published sources. Documents relating to political history alone are not 
considered. For full bibliographic references, see "Literature Cited". 

Hungarian documents connected directly to the Sublime Porte, and/or the Ottoman 
Empire: Barabas 1881, Beke and Barabas 1888, Borsos 1972, Karacson 1911, 1914, 
Szalay 1862. 

Turkish documents from occupied Hungary: Takats, Eckhardt, and Szekfii 1915, 
Velics and Kammerer 1886, 1890. 

Cartularies: Geresi 1885, Hornyik 1861, Karacson 1911, 1914, Lukinich 1872-1931. 

Annuals, account books, diaries, inventories, dowries: Baranyai 1962, Bartfai Szabo 
1904, Belenyesi 1959, Gyalui 1893, Jakab 1883, Kerekes 1902, Koncz 1887, Molnar 
1975, Nagy 1870, Radvanszky 1888, 1896 and 1879, Szadeczky 1911, P. Szathmary 
1881, Thaly (Kesmarki Thokoly Imre naploi) 1878, Toth 1900, Urbaria et conscriptiones 
1975. 

Limitation of goods, trade documents: G. Bethlen 1871, Takats 1898, 1899, 1900. 

Official and private correspondence: Deak 1879, Lukinich 1935, Szilagyi 1879. 

Literary texts and autobiographies: Apor 1927, K. Bethlen 1963, M. Bethlen 1864, W. 
Bethlen 1782-1793, Kemeny 1959, Mikes 1862, 1966, Rimay 1955. 



58 



Appendix 6 



Turkish and oriental fabrics used in Hungary and Transylvania 
from the 15th through the 18th century 

a. Dress materials: wool, camel-hair, cotton, and silk 

Atlas or silk satin. This type of fabric was manufactured in western Europe in 
considerable quantities (in the 17th century Florentine atlas was acquired in Vienna, 
and atlas of unspecified origin in Prague by Hungarians). However, some variants 
came from Turkey and Persia. (Beke and Barabas 1888; Borsos 1972: 70, 279) 

Bagazia (Persian bagazia, ordinary or koz bagazia, iszlar bagazia). A cotton fabric of 
varying quality used for dresses, the lining of costumes, furnishing, bedding, and 
the side panels of decorated tents. It was usually acquired in Istanbul but could also 
be had from Vienna. It is possible that "Turkish vaszon for tents" referred to bagazia 
(Szarvas and Simonyi 1893 (vol. 3): 1030). Bagazia patyolat was probably the finest 
variety of the fabric. — The Ottoman Turkish word bogasi entered the Hungarian 
language through Serbo-Croatian. It is first mentioned in Hungarian sources in 1544. 
(Benko 1967 (vol. 1): 215; Szabo 1976 (vol. 1): 534-44; Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 42; 
Szarvas and Simonyi 1890 (vol. 1): 155-56) 

Bagdat (bagddd). A cotton (?) fabric, used for the lining of textile covers for coaches. — 
From Ottoman Turkish (originally meaning "from Baghdad"). First mentioned in 
Hungarian sources in 1625. (Kakuk 1954) 

Csemelet (csemelyet, chiemellet, tsemeyet, tsiomoliet). A fabric of camel-hair or a mixture 
of camel-hair and silk, often described as Turkish. In the 17th century, it was 
generally used for skirts and mantles worn by women. At the turn of the 15th 
century, however, it was frequently used for royal garments for everyday use at the 
court of W4adislaw II Jagiello (Fogel 1913). — First mentioned in Hungarian sources 
in the late 15th century. (Borsos 1972: 48; Schulz 1912; 76; Szabo 1976 (vol. 1): 1092, 
under bulya-vdszon) 

Embroidered fabries from Turkey and Persia. (Borsos 1972: 279) 

Fosztdn (foszlany). A cotton (?) fabric. In the 17th century, fosztan also designated a 
type of garment worn underneath the dolmany. — A wandering word which came to 
the Hungarian language from Italian, Ottoman Turkish, and/or Serbo-Croatian. First 
mentioned in Hungarian sources in 1519. (Benko 1967 (vol. 1): 960-61; Szamota and 
Zolnai 1906: 260-61) 

Granat or granat posztb. A broadcloth used for various male and female garments. This 
type of cloth, referred to as Turkish granat, was frequently acquired for the 
Transylvanian princes in Istanbul. Granat also came from western Europe and was 
often purchased in Venice. Venetian granat could be acquired in Vienna too. — The 
origin of the word is unclear (meaning "from Granada"?), but the Hungarian word is 
definitely borrowed from a foreign language. First mentioned in Hungarian sources 
in 1552. (Benko 1967 (vol. 1): 1095; Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 308; Szarvas and 
Simonyi 1890 (vol. 1): 1123) 

59 



Kamuka. Probably a fine woollen fabric which is often specified as Turkish (Beke and 
Barabas 1888: 594). Schulz (1912: 75), however, interprets it as a heavy silk fabric, and 
in a 17th-century inventory a roll of hemp kamuka for tablecloths is listed 
(Radvanszky 1888: 285). "Turkish kamuka with flowers" and "kamuka adorned with 
multicoloured flowers" or "woven with fish-scale pattern" appear to refer to figured 
woollen fabrics. Kamuka of a single colour and Persian kamuka were also common. 
The fabric was used for tablecloths, various garments, petticoats, the lining of costly 
garments, and furnishings (wall- and bed-hangings). While it was often acquired in 
Istanbul, it was also for sale in Vienna, Venice, and Cracow. Contemporary sources 
mention Rac (Serbian), English, and Venetian kamukas. (Borsos 1972: 70, 279; 
Radvanszky 1896 (vol. 1): 172) 

Kanica. A silk and/or woollen fabric, sometimes used for horse-trappings. The term 
occasionally designated a sash worn by women (Benko 1970 (vol. 2): 346). — The 
word came to the Hungarian language from Serbo-Croatian. First mentioned in 
Hungarian sources in 1542. (Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 445) 

Karmany (karman). A light linen or cotton fabric, but occasionally the term referred to 
leather. Karman patyolat and karman gyolcs are also known. — From Ottoman Turkish, 
originally meaning "from/of Karamania". First mentioned in Hungarian sources in 
1543. (Benko 1970 (vol. 2); Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 457) 

Karmasin. A silk fabric, perhaps in satin weave (1523: "athlacz, i.e., satin, karmasin 
rubei colons"; 1544: "ex serico karmasyn"). It is frequently referred to as karmasin of 
Turkey and was often acquired in Istanbul. — From Arabic kirmizi. The word came to 
the Hungarian language via Italian, German, or medieval Latin. First mentioned in 
Hungarian sources in 1458. Karmasin could also refer to silk yarns, and was the term 
commonly used to designate a crimson colour whose name has the same 
etymological origins. (Beke and Barabas 1888: 818; Benko 1970 (vol. 2): 384; Szamota 
and Zolnai 1906: 457) 

Kasmir. A fine woollen fabric of oriental origin (meaning "from Kashmir"). 

Kiirdi. Either a kind of woollen cloth or a coat made of such a fabric or in oriental 
fashion. — From Ottoman Turkish for "of the Kurd". The term is also known in 
Romanian and Serbo-Croatian. First mentioned in Hungarian sources in 1661. 
(Kakuk 1954) 

Majc (majcz). A heavy figured silk fabric, usually woven with some cotton in the warp 
or the weft. Details of its patterning might be executed in gold and silver lame. Majc 
was often used for belts (Schulz 1912: 46-47). — First mentioned in Hungarian 
sources in 1636. (Beke and Barabas 1888: 240-42) 

Muhar (mohar, muhara, mothayer). A light silk (?) fabric. It was used for various 
garments, which some sources indicate were for use by domestics. It is often 
mentioned as Turkish muhar or Turkish mothayer in 17th-century sources. (Schulz 
1912: 76) 

Muszuj (muszuly, muszul). A lightweight cotton fabric used for female garments. In 
the 19th and 20th centuries the term has been used to describe a back-apron type of 
skirt worn especially in the Kalotaszeg district of Transylvania. — From Ottoman 
Turkish (originally meaning "from Mosul"). Also known in Serbo-Croatian, 
Albanian, and Romanian. The Hungarian word is only known from Transylvania. It 



60 



was adopted into Polish from Hungarian. First mentioned in Hungarian sources in 
1691. (Benko 1970 (vol. 2): 983; Kakuk 1954; Kos 1964; Szabo 1976 (vol. 1): 543, under 
bagazia) 

Tafota. A silk tabby, manufactured in various colours and frequently acquired in 
Istanbul (Beke and Barabas 1888: 818). Tafota also came from western Europe. In 
Vienna, a variety of tafota of unspecified origin (sometimes referred to as "ordinary") 
and Spanish, Venetian, and Neapolitan tafotas were purchased. The fabric was of 
course available from Venice, and Venetian tafota was occasionally sold in 
Transylvania. It was generally used to line costly garments and coverlets. 
Sometimes, however, entire garments were made of it. (Szamota and Zolnai 1906: 
950-51) 

Velvet. Plain velvet (sima barsony) of Turkish manufacture is often noted in documents 
(Beke and Barabas 1888: 105, 123), and it is likely that figured velvets too came from 
Turkey. Persian velvets could also be acquired in Istanbul (Borsos 1972: 279) and 
Venice (Radvanszky 1888: 69f.). Many varieties of velvet, however, came from 
western Europe. In Vienna Florentine, Genoese, and Milanese velvets were 
purchased, and most velvets available in Venice were probably of local manufacture 
(velvets with flowers, velvet interwoven with gold and adorned with floral 
ornaments, plain velvet in various colours). 

For further references to the various fabrics, see the indexes of Beke and Barabas 
1888; Radvanszky 1879, 1896, and 1888 (vols. 1-3); Szadeczky 1911. 

b. Linens and cottons 

The names of plain fabrics, usually woven in tabby weave, do not refer to their fibre 
or country of origin, but indicate rather the fineness of the yarn used and of the 
weave. Patyolat appears to be the finest and lightest of these materials, though the 
degrees of its quality are frequently distinguished in the written sources. Gyolcs 
seems to designate a fabric of medium fineness and weight, while vaszon indicates a 
coarser and more ordinary fabric. 

In the documents, patyolat is described as jantsar or jancsar (Janissary) patyolat of 
different qualities (good, better, best, ordinary), zale patyolat, Turkish patyolat, cotton 
patyolat, and patyolat woven in narrow widths. Polish and Moravian patyolats are 
occasionally also noted (Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2); Szarvas and Simonyi 1892 (vol. 2): 
1253-54). In most cases, however, adjectives do not help to identify the place where 
such fabrics were manufactured. 

Patyolat is often mentioned without any further specification among goods 
acquired for George Rakoczi I of Transylvania in Istanbul. In 1639 lengths of patyolat 
were brought from India to the Turkish capital (Beke and Barabas 1888: 407). Persian 
patyolat was also of high repute. It was regularly included among the royal gifts 
presented by Persian delegations to the Sultan of the Ottomans. In 1619 Thomas 
Borsos (1972: 279) noted that in addition to hundreds of rolls of white patyolat, 
especially the patyolat of Kandahar, several hundred rolls of costly colourful patyolat, 
interwoven (?) in both silver and gold, and patterned colourful patyolat (perhaps 
printed) for coverlets, were given to the Turkish sultan by Jadigiar Ali Sultan, 
ambassador of Persia to the Sublime Porte. Borsos (1972: 282) himself acquired one 
length of patyolat for his wife in Istanbul in that year. 

Gyolcs is known from the Orient as well as from western and central Europe. 
Among the eastern varieties, Turkish gyolcs, zergo gyolcs ("crisp", i.e., starched), 
gyolcs from India, and cotton, linen, and karman (from Karamania) gyolcs appear to be 
the most commonly used types. Such expressions as patkos gyolcs (with horse-shoes) 

61 



and palcas gyolcs (with short lines/bands) may refer to such patterned materials as, for 
example, the ground fabric of 18th- and 19th-century Turkish towels. The latter are 
frequently decorated with small brocaded ornaments, or bands of heavier wefts. 
"Double" (ketszeres/kettbs) gyolcs was also known. Among European imports, gyolcs 
from Holland, Germany, Flanders, France, Poland, Silesia, and numerous Upper 
Hungarian cities (Locse/Levoca, Bartfa/Bardejov) were well known. For references, 
see Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2); Schulz 1912; Szarvas and Simonyi 1890 (vol. 1): 
1172-73. 

Vaszon has a great many varieties, some of which can be associated with Ottoman 
Turkish fabrics. These include Turkish vaszon, Turkish vaszon of nettle, bulya vaszon, 
Janissary vaszon, good quality Janissary vaszon of cotton, and bagazia vaszon. Jewish 
vaszon may also refer to a special product of the Ottoman Empire. For references, see 
Palotay 1940: 14-15; Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2); Szabo 1976 (vol. 1): 1092-93; Szarvas 
and Simonyi 1893 (vol. 3): 1030. 

It is known that cotton vaszon was acquired and dyed in Istanbul for George 
Rakoczi I (Beke and Barabas 1888: 393-95). 

Vaszon was also woven locally. Numerous documents mention Transylvanian, 
Upper Hungarian (especially from the Szepesseg Region), Hungarian, hazi ("of the 
home", i.e., woven at home), and paraszt (peasant) varieties. These are occasionally 
described as being made of linen or hemp and unbleached vaszon of either of these 
fabrics. Some of the so-called Turkish vaszons did not necessarily come from Anatolia 
but could have been manufactured in Turkish-occupied Hungary or some other part 
of European Turkey. German, Viennese, and Italian vaszons were also available 
(Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2); Schulz 1912). Italian vaszon must have been the finest 
variety of this particular fabric. Canvas, on the other hand, was likely a coarse cloth in 
tabby weave, usually coming from Vienna (1612, list of goods purchased for the 
wedding of Countess Barbara Thurzo. Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2): 143-47). 

Another plain linen (?) fabric, used for blouses and shirts, was called csinadof 
(chydnadof, chinadof, csinatof). According to the descriptions in the sources, most such 
blouses were elaborately embroidered in gold and silver file, and silk. This seems to 
indicate that the material was similar to patyolat or the finest gyolcs. Csinadof was 
usually acquired from Vienna, but Turkish csinadof is also known from 1644 
(Radvanszky 1879 (vol. 2)). 

At the end of the 17th century, the price of one roll of patyolat varied from 5 to 25 
florins. In the same period, both Turkish gyolcs and vaszon cost 2 florins per roll. For 
additional references to fabrics and prices, see the inventory of a Greek merchant in 
section (c) of this appendix. 

Contemporary sources indicate that all these fabrics were used for more or less 
similar purposes. The fineness or coarseness of the material depended rather on the 
status of the wearer, or on the occasion when it was worn. Women's blouses were 
made from Turkish patyolat as well as from bulya vaszon (Schulz 1912: 23). 

Silk bulya vaszon was probably called vaszon because it was used for blouses and 
shirts. Aprons were made of "Polish patyolat, embroidered according to free-drawn 
design", "Turkish patyolat with whitework", "paraszt [peasant| patyolat", bulya 
vaszon, or paraszt bulya vaszon, or of loosely woven fine fabrics called fdtyol, which 
generally had printed ornaments. 

While gyolcs was considerably cheaper than patyolat, some documents indicate that 
it could also bear rich embroidery in gold or gilt file. The heavier, dyed or unbleached 
vaszons were often used for the linings of simple garments worn by domestics (Schulz 
1912). 



62 



c. A late 17th-century inventory of the stock of Demetrios Panduka's dry-good 
store in Upper Hungary. 

After Szendrei 1888, 538-39. 

1. Plain linen and cotton fabrics 

Patyolat 

from Baharia, 34 rolls (10 florins per roll) 

from Baharia, with ends (selvages ?) decorated in silver, 8 rolls (25 florins per roll) 

from Karamania, 2 rolls (6 florins per roll) 

Janissary patyolat, 8 rolls (25 florins per roll) 

ordinary Janissary patyolat, woven in narrow widths, 5 rolls (9 florins per roll) 

cotton patyolat, 14 1/2 rolls and 2 cubits (6.50 florins per roll; 30 denarii per cubit) 

bagazia patyolat, 19 cubits (60 denarii per cubit) 

woven in narrow width, 1 roll (5 florins per roll) 

with ends (selvages ?) decorated in white, 2 rolls (16 florins per roll) 

with ends (selvages ?) decorated in ordinary white yarn, 1 roll (10 florins per roll) 

with ends (selvages ?) decorated in silver: 

1 roll, 2 cubits (15 florins per roll, 30 denarii per cubit) 

5 rolls (12 florins per roll) 

1 roll (10 florins per roll) 

33 cubits (60 denarii per cubit) 

Gyolcs 

Turkish, 330 rolls (2 florins per roll) 

from Bartfa (Bardejov), 50 cubits (10 denarii per cubit) 

double (?), 90 cubits (10 denarii per cubit) 

Vaszon 

Turkish, 20 rolls (2 florins per roll) 

heavy, 50 cubits (6 denarii per cubit) 

2. Other fabrics 

bagazia, 1 roll and 7 cubits (6.80 florins) 

iszlar bagazia, 14 rolls (2 florins per roll) 

white iszlar, 2 rolls (1.80 florins per roll) 

aba broadcloth, 1 roll 6 cubits (5 florins) 

fabric for foszlany (fosztan), 111 roll (6 florins per roll) 

fabric for coverlet (paplan), 1 roll (2.50 florins per roll) 

fabric for apron (futa), 4 1/2 rolls (1.50 florins per roll) 

3. Articles of costume 

high Turkish boots, 2 pairs (2.50 florins per pair) 

high boots of kordovany leather, 3 pairs (1.80 florins per pair) 

black silk kerchiefs, 4 1/2 rolls (3.60 florins per roll) 

skin-coloured kerchiefs, 1 roll (4 florins per roll) 

kerchiefs, 8 rolls (6 florins per roll) 

7 blue belts (1 florin per belt) 

63 



3 black linings (3 florins per lining) 

Various foszlanys (a garment made of cotton fabric of the same name): 

18 blue foszlanys (1.20 florins per piece) 

17 foszlanys without specification (1.50 florins per piece) 

20 foszlanys without specification (0.90 florin per piece) 

48 small foszlanys (0.90 florin per piece) 

10 small foszlanys (1 florin per piece) 

1 large foszlany (3.60 florins per piece) 

7 large, red foszlanys (3.60 florins per piece) 

5 large white foszlanys (3 florins per piece) 

13 ordinary foszlanys (0.90 florin per piece) 

4. Yarns 

silk, 30 nitras (4.50 florins per nitra) 

plyed silk, 1 nitra (5.40 florins per nitra) 

cotton from Kassa (Kosice), 23 rolls (1 florin per roll) 

blue cotton for embroidery and weaving, 208 )iitras (0.90 florin per nitra) 

5. Miscellaneous goods 

2 tablecloths from Cracow (1.50 florins per piece) 



64 



Glossary 



For the names of various fabrics, see Appendix 6. Some Hungarian and Turkish 
words occurring only once are explained in the text. 



Ab 


breviations: 


A 


Arabic 


G 


German 


Gr 


Greek 


H 


Hungarian 


I 


Italian 



L 


Latin 


R 


Romanian 


S 


Slavic 


S-C 


Serbo-Croatian 


T 


Ottoman Turkish 



aga (T) Title of military and civil officials 

akce, akca (T) Turkish coinage (in H sources: asper, ospora) 

bey (T) Title, inferior to the papa and superior to the aga 

boyard (from R) Romanian nobleman, member of the land-owner aristocracy 

bulya, bula (H; from T via S-C) Moslem woman 

cavus (T) Uniformed attendant of an ambassador; a Turkish official messenger 

cavus pa§a (T) Leader of the uniformed attendants of an ambassador 

divan (T) Council of State in the Ottoman Empire 

dolmany (H; from T) Tight-fitting, three-quarter length coat, worn underneath the 

mente; a characteristic Hungarian male costume in the 16th and 17th centuries 
dram (Gr) Weight measurement, ca. 3.5 g 

fertaly (H from G vierteil, viertel) Longitudinal measurement, fraction of a sing 
fustanella, fustinella, fustanelle (I lingua franca; diminutive of the name by which 

the garment is known in the Balkans) A short, gathered, skirt-like garment, 

made of white cotton or linen, worn in Greece and Albania 
gyolcs (H) Medium fine linen or cotton tabby; used for bedding, underclothes, and 

shirts 
janissary (from T yenigeri) A member of an elite corps of Turkish infantrymen 

conscripted from Christian youths and war captives, who were forcibly converted 

to Islam. Janissaries formed the sultan's bodyguard, 
kapi kethiidasi, kapi kahyasi (T) Official representative of a provincial governor 

who transacted his business with the Sublime Porte in Istanbul 
kaymakam (T) The deputy of the Grand Vizier and governor of Istanbul 
kece (T) Felt, made of sheep's wool or camel hair 
kilim (T) Tapestry-woven rug 
krajcar (H; from G Kreuzer) Coinage, used in Hungary, Austria, and Germany; 

fraction of various larger denominations (see thaler) 
makrama (T) Towel or kerchief with embroidered or woven decoration 
mente (H) A long or three-quarter length coat worn over the shoulders with 

non-functional pendant sleeves; a characteristic Hungarian male costume in the 

16th and 17th centuries 
nitra Weight measurement 

pa§a (T) Formerly the highest title conferred on Turkish military and civil officials 
pasalik (T) Territory ruled by a pa§a 
patyolat (H) Very fine linen or cotton tabby; used for bedding, underclothes, and 

shirts 

65 



pesgir, peskir (T) Rectangular napkin or towel with embroidered or woven 

ornaments across each narrow end 
pestemal, pestamal (T) Large bath towel 
Ramazan (T; from A) The ninth month of the Moslem year, observed as a 30-day 

fast between dawn and sunset 
sing (H) Longitudinal measurement, meaning cubit 
skofium (H; from L [s\cophia, [s]cophium) Flat metallic strips or lame, used for 

embroidery and for the decoration of figured silks 
sziir (H) Men's mantle of heavy, fulled woollen twill, worn over the shoulders with 

pendant sleeves. It served as everyday and festive garment for villagers, serfs, and 

herdsmen up to the early 20th century in Hungary. 
thaler (G) Silver coinage used in Hungary, Austria, and Germany 
vajda, vajvoda, voivode (S) A local ruler or military official in various parts of 

southeastern Europe 
vaszon (H) Linen, hemp, or cotton tabby of relatively coarse weave; used for 

bedding, undergarments, shirts, and linings 
yaglik (T) Napkin, towel, or kerchief with embroidered decoration 
yazma (T) Woodblock-printed cotton (mainly kerchiefs, towels, bedspreads). In the 

18th and 19th centuries, some varieties were resist-printed and painted. 



66 



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GARAS, K. 

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1952 "Zabytki sztuki Islamu w b. Muzeum Czartoryskich w Krakowie" [The Islamic 
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1975 Magyar nepmuveszet [Hungarian folk art]. Budapest: Corvina. 



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1964 "A kalotaszegi muszuj" [The WMSzuy-skirt of Kalotaszegl. Miiveltseg es Hagyomdny 
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1964 Graeske og tyrkiske broderier [Greek and Turkish embroideries]. Copenhagen: 
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72 



KREKWITZ, G. 

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1935 "SzolSsmondasok a grof Zichy csalad szelyi nemzetsegi levelWr^nak XVI. szdzadi 
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1940 Documente istorice Transilvane [Transylvanian historical documents], vol. 1 
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MANKOWSKI, T. 

1954 Polskie tkaniny i hafty XV1-XVIII wieku [Polish textiles and embroideries from the 
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1955 Comerful Tarii Romdneqti §;' Moldovei cu Bra§ovul (sec. XIV-XVI) [Commerce of 
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1961 L'emaillerie de I'ancienne Hongrie. Budapest: Corvina. 

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1862 Torokorszdgi levelek [Letters from Turkey], ed. by F. Toldy. Pest: Heckenast 

Guszt^v. 2 vols. 
1966 Tordkorszdgi levelek es misszilis levelek [Letters from Turkey, and miscellaneous 

letters]. In Mite osszes miivei (Collected works of Mikes), vol. 1., ed. by L. Hopp. 

Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. 

MILLAR, O 

1966 Zoffany and his Tribuna. Studies in British Art. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 

MILLS, ]. 

1975 Carpets in pictures. Themes and painters in the National Gallery. London: National 
Gallery. 

MOLNAR, J 

1975 "Kiraly Gyorgy kincsei" [ The treasures of George Kirily] . Muzeumi Ku rir 2(9) : 3-9. 

MONTAGU, M.W. 

1965 The complete letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, vol. 1: 1708-1720, ed. by R. 
Halsband. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 



73 



MULLER-LANCET, A. 

1976 "Elements in costume and jewellery specific to the Jews of Morocco' 
Museum News 11:48-66. 



Israel 



MUSICESCU, M.A. 

1962 "Portretul laic brodat in arta medievala romineasca", with French summary (Le 
portrait laique brode dans l'art roumain du Moyen Age). Studii qi Cercetari Istoria 
Artei 1:45-78. 

NAGY, I 

1870 "XVI. szazadbeli ingosagok" [Furnishings from the sixteenth centuryj. Archaeo- 
logiai Ertesito 4:226-27. 

NAGY, MB. 

1970 Reneszdnsz es barokk Erdelyben [Renaissance and Baroque in Transylvania). 
Bucharest: Kriterion. 

NICOLESCU, C. 

1970a Le costume de com dans les pays roumains (XIVe-XVHIe siecles). Bucharest: Musee 
d'Art de la Republique Socialiste de Roumanie, Section d'Art Roumain Ancien. 

1970b Istoria costumului de curte in (arile Romane, secolele XIV-XVIII [The history of 
Romanian court costume: 14th to 18th century]. Bucharest: Editura §tiintifica. 

1976 "L'art islamique en Roumanie". Aarp 9:75-81. 

NYARY, A. 

1904 "Rozsnyoi Gombkotok" [ Button braiders of Rozsnyo] . Neprajzi Ertesito 5 : 185-201 . 
PACHONSKI, Z.J. 

1934 "Dwie najslynniejsze choragwie zdobyte na Turkach przez Jana III w r. 1683" [The 
most famous flags taken from the Turks in 1683 by John M]. Kurier 
Literacko-Naukowy az llustrowany Kurier Codzienny 195 (16 July). 

PALOTAY, G. 

1927 "Les influences turques dans la broderie hongrois". Nouvelle Revue de Hongrie 
30:430^5. 

1935 "A gyori reformatus egyhaz regi torok kendoje s nemely tanulsaga" [An old 
Turkish kerchief in the property of the Calvinist Church of Gyori . Gyori Szemle 
6:174-85. 

1936 "A debreceni ref. egyhaz regi teritoi" [Old table covers in the Calvinist Church of 
Debrecen]. Debreceni Szemle 10:84-94. 

1937 "Torok hagyatek a kalotaszegi himzesben", with German summary (Tiirkische 
Nachklange in der Leinenstickerei von Kalotaszeg). A Neprajzi Miizeum Ertesitoje 
29:106-18. 

1940a Oszman-torok elemek a magyar himzesben I Les elements turcs-ottomans des broderies 
hongroises. Bibliotheca Humanitatis Historica, vol. 2. Budapest: Magyar Torteneti 
Miizeum. 

1940b "Arva Bethlen Kata fonalas munkai" [The needlework of Catherine Bethlen[. 
Erdelyi Tudomdnyos Fiizetek 117:1-24. 

1941 "Regi erdelyi himzesmintarajzok" [Old embroidery patterns from Transylvania |. 
Erdelyi Tudomdnyos Fiizetek 131 : 1-10. 

1942 "Torokos himzesii bortaskak Erdelyben" [Leather sacks with Turkish-style 
embroidery in Transylvania]. Kozlemenyek az Erdelyi Muzeum trem- es Regisegtdrdbol 
2(2): 261-78. French summary, p. 279. 

1954 "Turkish embroideries" . CIBA Review 102 : 3658-83. 

PAPADOPOULOS, S.A., ed. 

1969 Greek handicraft. Athens: National Bank of Greece. 

PHTRASCH, E. 

1970 Die Turkenbeute: Eine Auswahl aus der tiirkischen Trophaensammlung des Markgrafen 
Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden. Bildhefte, no. 49. Karlsruhe: Badisches Landes- 
museum. 

petrescu, p. and p.h. stahl 

1966 Scoarte romdnes,ti [Romanian carpets]. Bucharest: Meridiane. 



74 



PIGLER, A 

1956 "Portraying the dead. Painting — Graphic art". Acta Historiae Artium 4:1-76. 
POLGAR, l 

1916 "Torok egyhazi muemlekeink" [Turkish historical monuments of the Roman 
Catholic Church]. Katholikus Szemle 30:57-63. 

POSTA, B 

1944 "A pokafalvi reformatus egyhaz regi himzesei" [Old embroideries in the Calvinist 
church at Pokafalva]. Dolgozatok as Erdelyi Nemzeti Muzeum Erem- es Regisegtdrdbol 
5:194-202. 

RADVANSZKY, B. 

1888 Udmrtartasok es szdmaddskonyvek, vol. 1: Bethlen Gabor fejedelem udvartardsa 

[Household and account books, vol. 1: The household of Prince Gabriel Bethlen]. 

Budapest: Athenaeum. 
1879 Magyar csaladelet es haztartas a XVI-XVII. szazadban | Hungarian family life and 

households in the 16th and 17th centuries], vols. 2^3. Budapest: Knoll Karoly 

Akademiai Konyv^ros. 
1896 Magyar csaladelet es haztartas a XVI-XVII. szazadban [see preceding entry], vol. 1. 

Budapest: Hornyanszky Viktor. 

R1MAY, J. (1573-1631) 

1955 Osszes muvei [Complete works], ed. by S. Eckhardt. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. 

ROSENTHAL, F. 

1971 "A note on the mandil". In Four esssays on art and literature in Islam, pp. 63-121. 
L.A. Mayer Memorial Studies in Islamic Art and Archaeology, vol. 2. Leiden: E.J. 
Brill. 

SCARCE, J. 

1975 "The development of women's veils in Persia and Afghanistan". Costume 9:4-14. 

1976 "Islam in the Balkans: Historical introduction". Aarp 9:49-54. 
scarce, j , ed. 

1979 Islam in the Balkans: Persian art and culture of the 18th and 19th centuries: Royal 
Scottish Museum. 

SCHMUTZLER, E. 

1933 Altorientalische Teppiche in Siebenbiirgen . Leipzig: K.W. Hiersemann. 
schulz, I 

1912 Noi viselet a Kuruc Korban, 1670-1700 [Women's costume of the Kuruc period, 
1670-1700]. Muvelodestorteneti Ertekezesek, no. 61. Budapest: Pesti 
Konyunyomda Rt. 

SIKLOSSY, L. 

1925 "Erdelyi szonyegek" [Transylvanian carpets]. Pdsztortuz. 

SOBIC, j 

1953 "Zbirka pirotskih khilima Etnografskog Muzeya u Belgradu", with English 
summary (Kilims from Pirot in the collections of the Ethnographical Museum, 
Belgrade). Zbornik Etnografskog Muzeya u Beogradu (1901-1951): 101-15. 

SOBO, j 

1910 Selmeczbanya sz. kir. varos tdrsadalma [The society of the royal free city of 
Selmecbanya/Banska SiemnicaJ. Muvelodestorteneti Ertekezesek, no. 40. 
Budapest: F. Arminkonyvnyomdaja. 

STANKOV, D 

1975 Chergi i kilimi/Carpettes et tapis. Sophia: Academie Bulgare des Sciences. 

START, L.E., and E.M. DURHAM 

1939 The Durham collection of garments and embroideries from Albania and Yugoslavia. 
Bankfield Museum Notes, 3rd ser., no. 4. Halifax, Eng.: Halifax Corporation. 

SWIERZ-ZALESKI, S. ' 

1935 Zbiory zamku krolewskiego na Waweiu LThe collection of the royal palace of the 
Wawel]. Cracow: Drukarnia narodowa. 



75 



SZABLOWSKI, J 

1971 

SZABO T., A. 

1956 



A krakkbi Wawel gyiijtemenyei/Zbiory zamku krolewskiego na \Nawelu [The collections of 
the Wawel in Cracow]. Budapest: Corvina; Warszaw: Arkady. 



[Flat woven rugs from Seckler Transylvania]. Ethnographia 



"A festekesek es taTsai' 
67:99-109. 
1976 Erdelyi magyar szbtbrteneti tar (Dictionar istoric al lexicului maghiar din Transilvania I 
Wortgeschichtlicher Thesaurus der siebenbiirgisch-ungarischen Sprache), vol. 1. 
Bucharest: Kriterion. 
szAdeczky, b, ed. 

1911 /. Apafi Mihaly fejedelem udvartartdsa, vol. 1: Bornemissza Anna gazdasagi naplbi 
(1667-1690) [The household of Prince Michael Apafi I, vol. 1: The account books of 
Anne Bornemissza, 1667-16901. Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 
szalay, l. 

1862 Erdely es a porta, 1567-1578 [Transylvania and the Sublime Porte, 1567-1578]. Pest: 
Rath Mor. 
szamota, I., and G. zolnai, eds. 

1906 Magyar oklevel-szotar [Hungarian charter dictionary]. Budapest: Horny^nszky 
Viktor. 
szarvas, g. and z. simonyi, eds. 

1890-91 Magyar nyelvtbrteneti szotar [Hungarian language-historical dictionary], Budapest: 
Homy^nszky Viktor. 3 vols. 
szathmAry, k.p. 

1881 "Egy magyar fejedelmi kincstaY' [A Hungarian princely treasury]. Tbrtenelmi Tar 
4:763-80, "Regestrum universorum bonorum mobilium spectabilis ac magnifici 
domini Simonis Kemeny de Gyeromonostor, conscripHo 1662. in Aranyos- 
Meggyes". 



SZEKELY, j. 

1912 

SZEMERE, B. 
1870 

SZENDREI, J. 
1888 

1896 



1905 
1908 

SZENTIMREI, 

1958a 
1958b 

SZILADI, a 

1931 

SZILAGYI, s 

1875 
1879 

SZUMAN, S. 
1929 



Thbkbly Imre udvartartdsa | Household of Emericus Thokoly]. Budapest: Nap. 

Utazds Keleten a vildgosi napok utdn [Travels in the East after Vikgos], vol. 1. In his 
Osszegyujtbtt munkai (Collected works), vol. 3. Pest: Rath Mor. 

"Egy megbukott gorog boltos a XVII-ik sz^zadban" [A bankrupt Greek 
shopkeeper in the 17th century]. Sz^zadok 22:533-40. 

Magyar hadtortenelmi emlekek az ezredeves orszdgos kidllitdson [Monuments of 
Hungarian military history at the exhibition of Hungary's 1000th year anniver- 
sary]. Budapest: Franklin. 

A magyar viselet tbrteneti fejlbdese [The historical development of Hungarian 
costume]. Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 

Adatok a magyar viselet tbrtenetehez [Material to the history of Hungarian costume]. 
Budapest: Franklin. Reprinted from Archaeolbgiai Ertesitb, 1907-1908. 

Scoarte secuieqti [Seckler carpets]. Caiete de Arta Populara. Bucharest: Editura de 

Stat Pentru Literatura si Arta. 

Szekely festekesek | Seckler tapestry- woven carpets]. Bucharest: Kriterion. 

"Szekely es bolg^r szonyegek" [Seckler and Bulgarian rugs]. Muveszet 7:81-82. 

Rajzok es tanulmdnyok [Depictions and studies]. Budapest: Athenaeum. 2 vols. 
Bethlen Gdbor fejedelem kiadatlan politikai levelei | Unedited political letters of Prince 
Gabriel Bethlenl. Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 

Dawne Kilimy w Polsce i na Ukraine, with French summary (Les anciens kilims en 
Pologne et en Ukraine). Poznan: Fiszer i Majewski Ksiegarnia Uniwersytecka. 



76 



TAKATS, S. 

1898 "Kom^romi harmincadosok dolga a XVI. es XVII. sz^zadban Magyarorszigon" 
[Tax-collectors of Komarom in 16th- and 17th-century Hungary]. Magyar 
Gasdasdgtorteneti Szemle 5:421-53. 

1899 "Kiilkereskedelmi mozgalmak haz^nkban I. Lipot alatt" [Foreign trade move- 
ments in Hungary during the reign of Lipot IJ. Magyar Gazdasdgtorteneti Szemle 
6:343-67, 391-412, 439-64. 

1900 "A dunai hajozis a XVI. es XVII. szdzadban" [Shipping on the Danube in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries]. Magyar Gazdasdgtorteneti Szemle 7:97-122, 
144_76, 193-222, 241-73, 289-319. 

1907 "Adatok nyelviink tortenetehez [Data to the history of the Hungarian language]. 
Magyar Nyelv 3:374-76. 

1914 Regi magyar asszonyok [Hungarian ladies of the past]. Az 'Elet' Konyvei. Budapest: 
filet. 

1915 Rajzok a torok irildgbol [Life during the Turkish period], vol. 1. Budapest: Magyar 
Tudom^nyos Akademia. In Turkish translation: Macaristan Turk aleminden cizgiler . 
Ceviren sadrettin karkatay. Ankara: Maarif Basimevi, 1958. 

1926 Magyar nagyasszonyok [Hungarian ladies]. Budapest: Genius. 2 vols. 
1928 A torok hodoltsdg kordbol (1-lH) [From the period of the Turkish occupation of 
Hungary]. Budapest: Genius kiadas. 

TAKATS, S , F ECKHARDT, and G SZEKFU, eds. 

1915 A budai basdk magyar nyelvii levelezese, vol. 1: 1553-1589 [The Hungarian 
correspondence of the pasas of Buda] Budapest: Magyar Tudom^nyos Akademia. 

TAPAY-SZABO, G. 

1941 Magyar lirihimzes [Hungarian domestic embroidery]. Budapest: Officina. 
tardy, L , ed. 

1977 Rabok, kovetek, kalmdrok az oszman birodalomrol [Prisoners, ambassadors, and 
merchants about the Ottoman Empire]. Nemzeti Konyvt^r. Budapest: Gondolat. 

TASZYCKA, M 

1968 "Ceintures de soie^ — accessories du costume de gentilhomme polonais". Bulletin de 
Liaison du Centre International d'Etude des Textiles Anciens 27:85-147. 

TEUTSCH, F. 

1881 "Aus der Zeit der sachsischen Humanismus". Archiv des Vereins fur siebenburgische 
Landeskunde 16:227-77, esp. 244ff. 

THALLOCZY, L. 

1878 "I. Apafi Mihaly udvara" [The court of Prince Michael Apafi I|. Szdzadok 
12:413-31, 510-32. 

THALY, K. 

1878a Kesmdrki Thokoly Imre naploi, leveleskonyvei es egyeb emlekezetes irdsai [The diaries, 

letters and other memorable writings of Emericus Thokoly de Kesmirk]. 

Monumenta Hungariae Historica, 2, Scriptores. Budapest: Magyar Tudom^nyos 

Akademia. 
1878b "Otvosmiivek es skofiumhimzesi adatok 1709- es 10-bol" [ Goldsmiths' works and 

data concerning skofium embroidery from 1709 to 1710]. Archaeologiai Ertesito 

12:161-68. 

1879 "A regi magyar himzomiiveszetrol, 1707-1708" [Old Hungarian embroidery art, 
1707-1708]. Archaeologiai Ertesito 13:344-50. 

TILKE, M. 

1956 Costume patterns and designs: A survey of costume patterns and designs of all periods and 
nations from antiquity to modern times. New York : Praeger. 
TOTH, E. 

1900 "I. es II. Apafi Mihaly naploja" [The diaries of Michael Apafi I and II]. Erdelyi 
Muzeum 17:1-55. 

TREIBER-NETOLICZKA, L 

1968 Die Trachtenlandschaften der Siebenbiirger Sachseti. Marburg: N.G. Elwert. 

77 



TUCHELT, K, ed. 

1966 Turkische Gewdnder und osmanische Gesellschaft im achtzenten Jahrhundert . Facsimile 
edition of a manuscript in the collection of the German Archaeological Institute in 
Istanbul, entitled "Les portraits des differens habillements qui sont en usage a 
Constantinople et dans tout la Turquie". Pref. by Rudolf Naumann. Graz: 
Akademische Druck u. Verlagsanstalt. 

TZIGARA-SAMURCAS, A 

ca. 1930 Tapis roumains. Paris: Editions Art et Couleurs. 

UZUNCARSILI, l.H. 

1945 Osmanh Devletinin Saray Teskilati [The governing system of the Ottoman Empire]. 
Turk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlarindan, 8 ser., no. 15. Ankara: n.p. 

VAKARELSKI, H. 

1969 Bulgarische Volkskunst. Sophia: Bulgarski Hudoshnik. 

V(ARJU)- EMBER, M. 

1962 "II. Lajos magyar kirAly es felesege ruhaja", with French summary (Les vetements 
de Louis II, roi de Hongrie, et de sa femme). Folia Archaeologica 14:133-51. 

1963 Hungarian domestic embroidery. Budapest: Corvina. 

1966-67 "Magyar viseletform^k a XVI. es XVII. szazadban", with French summary 

(Formes de costumes hongrois aux XVIe et XVIIe siecles). Folia Archaeologica 

18:205-26. 
1968 "XVI-XVII. szazadi ruhadarabok a saYospataki kriptikbol", with French summary 

(Vetements des XVIe et XVIIe siecles mis a jour des cryptes de SaYospatak). Folia 

Archaeologica 19:151-84. 
1972 "A 17. szazadi magyar himzesek mutivumkincse", with German summary 

(Musterschatz der ungarischen Stickereien in 17. Jahrhundert). Folia Historica 

1:45-80. 

VEGH, G , and K LAYER 

ca. 1925 Tapis hires provenant des eglises et collections de Transylvanie . Paris: A. Levy. For 

English edition, see 1977. 
1977 Turkish rugs in Transylvania, ed. and postscript by Dr. M. Dall'Oglio and Dr. C. 

Dall'Oglio. Fishguard, Wales: Crosby Press. 

VELEV, D. D. 

1960 Blgarski kilimi do kraia na XIX v. [Bulgarian kilims from the 19th century]. Sofia: 
Blgarska Akademia na Naukite Institut za Izobrazitelni Izkustva. 
velics, a ., and e. kammerer 

1886 Magyarorszdgi torok kimutatdsi defterek [Turkish defters from Hungary; in Hungarian 

translation], vol. 1: 1543-1635. Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 
1890 Magyarorszdgi torok kimutatdsi defterek [see preceding entry], vol. 2: 1541-1639. 
Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia. 
VISKI, K. 

1928 Szekely szonyegek [Seckler rugs]. Budapest: Kiralyi Magyar Egyetemi Nyomda. 
VOIT, P. 

1943 Regi magyar otthonok [Hungarian homes]. Budapest: Egyetemi Nyomda. 

WACE, A.J.B. 

1935 Mediterranean and Near Eastern embroideries from the collection of Mrs. F.H. Cook. 
London: Holt. 2 vols. 

WHITE, C. 

1845 Three years in Constantinople; or domestic manners of the Turks in 1844. London: 
Colburn. 3 vols. 

WILBUSCH, Z. 

1972 "A ceremonial robe from Bulgaria". Israel Museum News 9:74-77. 

YETKIN, §. 

1974 Turk hah sanatt. Is Bankasi Kultur Yayinlan, 150, Sanat Dizisi, 20. Istanbul: Is 
Bankasi Kultur Yayinlan. 



78 



ZAPASKO, IP 

1973 Ukrain'ske narodne kylymarstvo [Ukrainian national kiJims]. Kiev: Mistetzrvo. 

ZHUK, A.K. 

1966 Ukrain'ski narodni kylymy (XVII — poch. XX st.) [Ukrainian national kilims, 17th to 
20th century]. Kiev: Dumka. 

ZIGURA, A 

1966 Covoare turce§ti din colecfia muzeului de arta R.S.R. [Turkish rugs from the collection 
of the Art Museum of the Romanian Socialist Republic]. Bucharest: Muzeul de 
Arta al Republicii Socialiste Romania. 

ZOJZI, R 

1971 "La guna dans la tradition vestimentaire des peuples balcaniques". Actes du premier 
Congres International des Etudes Balkaniques et Sud-Est Europeennes 7:639-50. 

ZOLNAY, L. 

1977 Kineses Magyarorszag: Korepkori mtivelddesiink tortenetebol I Treasures of Hungary: 
from the cultural history of the Middle Ages]. Budapest: Magveto Kiado. 

ZOLTAI, L 

1938 A debreceni viselet a XVI-XVIII. szdzadban [Costume worn in Debrecen from the 16th 
to the 18th century). Az Ethnographia Fiizetei no. 8. Budapest: Magyar Nepraji 
Tarsosag. Offprint from Ethnographia— Nepelet 49 (1938): 75-108, 287-315. 

ZYGULSKI, Z , JR. 

1960 "Wschod w zboirach wawelskich. Uwagi w zwiazku z wystawa" [The culture of 
the Orient as seen through the collection of the Wawel]. Przeglad Orientalistyczny. 
4(36): 427-31. 

1968 "Choragwie tureckie w Polsce" [Turkish flags in Poland]. Paristwowe Zbiory Sztuki 
na Wawelu 363-453. 



1976 Aarp (Art and Archaeology Research Papers) 9, with articles on aspects of "Islam in the 
Balkans" by J. Scarce, G. Goodwin, R. Lawless, S. Stamov, J. Lap, C. Nicolescu, and 
M. Kiel. (See also Scarce and Nicolescu). 

1976 Kimondhatatlan nyomoriisag: Ket emlekirat a 15-16, szdzadi oszrndn fogsdgrol [Unbelievable 
misery: Two memoirs about Ottoman captivity in the 15th and 16th centuries]. 
Georgius de Hungaria, Tractatus de rnoribus, condicionibus et negnicia turcorum (Rome, 
1480); and Bartholomeus Georgievits, Libellus . . . de afflictione captivorum (Antwerp: 
Typis Copeny, 1544) in Hungarian translation, with notes and postscript by E. Fugedi. 
Budapest: Europa. 

1975 Urbaria et Conscriptiones , vol. 4, fasc. 36-50: "Muveszettorteneri adatok" [Art-historical 
data]. Collected by B. Baranyai, et al., ed. by L. Henszlmann, et al. A Magyar 
Tudomanyos Akademia Muveszettorteneti Kutato Csoportjinak Forraskiadvanyai. 
Budapest. 



Exhibition Catalogues 



1957 Catalogul Muzeului de Arta Populard al R.P.R. [Catalogue of the Museum of Folk Art in 

the People's Republic of Romania) . Bucharest. 
1959 Jugoslavische Volkskunst. Museum fur Volkerkunde und Schweizerische Museum fur 

Volkskunde Basel. From 1 November 1958 to 31 January 1959. 
1970 Scoarte populare romaneqti [Romanian peasant rugs]. Muzeul de Arta Populara R.S. 

Romania, Bucharest. Introduction by N. Ungureanu. 
1972 Dokuma makramalar: Ozel Koleksiyonu [Woven towels called makrama from the Ozel 

collection). Istanbul, Yapi ve Kredi Bankasi (no. 92). From 5 July to 5 August. Text by 

N. Berker. 



79 



1974 Alte anatolische Teppiche aus dem Museum fur Kunstgewerbe in Budapest. Steiermarkischen 

Landesmuseum Jvameum, Graz. Text by F. Batari. 
1976 The arts of Islam. London, Hayward Gallery. From 8 April to 4 July. (The Arts Council 

of Great Britain.) 
n.d. Traditional carpets of Serbia. Text by B. Vladic-Krsric. Prepared by the Ethnographic 

Museum in Belgrade in collaboration with the Horniman Museum, London. London: 

Horniman Museum. 



Manuscripts 



"Gemina effigies Principum omnium Transylvaniae et autographi illuminata" (aquarelles, page 

size 32 cm x 20 cm). Budapest, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Manuscript 

Collection (Tort. Reg. Ivret. 3). 

"Trachten Cabinet von Siebenbiirgen", 1790 (aquarelles). Bucharest, Library of the Romanian 

Academy of Sciences. For publication, see Bobu-Florescu (1965). 

"Abriss Derer Siebenburgischen Fursten von Zwey Hundert Jahren . . . nebst einer kurtzen 

historischen Beschreibung . . . aus unterschiedlichen Notatis, Bildern und Manathen zusam- 

men getragen von Johann Lindern de Friedenberg . . . , Wienn d. 25 Juni A. 1734" (aquarelles, 

page size 29 cm x 22.5 cm). Budapest, Library of the Museum of Decorative Arts (92. r. sz.). For 

publication, see Asztalos (1936), pi. 1-5. 

Gospel copied from a Greek original by the monk Simon for Tsar Alexander of Bulgaria, 

1355-1356. London, British Library, Add. Ms. 39627. 

Additional archival references from Transylvania are included in the notes. 



80 



The Figures 



Costume 

Figures 1-26 



83 




Fig. 1. Funerary portrait of Prince Ieremia Movila (1596-1606). Embroidered in silver and gilt 
file and silk on velvet ground. Romania: Monastery of Sucevita, Moldavia. 1606. 
The fur-lined, long-sleeved kaftan worn by the prince recalls the festive garments of the 
Ottoman court. The original fabric of the mantle was probably a figured silk woven in Bursa. 



84 




Fig. 2. Woman's costume. Bulgaria. Ca. 1925. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 960.114. Gift of Miss Stella Vasiloff. 

The elbow-length coat of this costume, made of heavy fulled woollen twill and adorned with 

braided edgings, is characteristic of Bulgarian women's wear in many ethnographic regions of 

the country. This type of garment evolved from kaftan-type coats worn by Turkish women. The 

deep rounded neckline was typical of women's coats all over the Ottoman Empire. The necklace 

of coins also reflects Turkish influence. 



85 







Fig. 3. Woman's festive jacket with open sleeves. Red velvet decorated with laid and couched 
work of silver and gilt braiding and figured bands of metallic file. Albania. Mid-19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 910.95.3. 

In the 18th and 19th centuries, three-quarter length coats with full skirts and non-functional 
open sleeves were worn by both men and women throughout the Ottoman Empire. The finest 
examples were made of velvet or English broadcloth and were richly adorned in the fashion 
represented by this piece. Such costumes were worn by the nobility, important officials, and 
the well-to-do bourgeoisie. 



86 




Fig. 4. Woman's sleeveless festive jacket. Red velvet decorated with laid and couched work of 
silver and gilt braiding and figured bands of metallic file. Albania. Mid-19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 910.95.4. 

The sleeves of garments such as that shown in Fig. 3 were only decorative. Many similar jackets 
were made without sleeves. 



87 




Fig. 5. Detail of Figure 4. 

This type of embroidery, based on stylized vegetation, was characteristic of the work of 

professional embroiderers in the Balkans and throughout the Ottoman Empire. 



88 




Fig. 6. Woman's sleeveless festive jacket. Medium-blue English broadcloth decorated with 
laid and couched work of silver and gilt braiding and figured bands of metallic file. Albania, 
Greece, or Yugoslavia. Mid-19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 973.128.7. Bequest of Dr. Hetty Goldman. 



89 




Fig. 7. Woman's festive costume with two sleeveless jackets. While the under-jacket is made 
of coarse fulled white woollen twill, the over-jacket of fine English broadcloth is decorated with 
laid and couched work of gilt metallic braiding. Each of the jackets is edged with dark red 
velvet. Greece: Attica. Mid-19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 910.95.1. 

In Attica the over-jackets of this type of costume were adorned by professional craftsmen in 
"Turkish" style. However, minor details such as the inclusion of small birds indicate Greek 
rather than Turkish taste. 



90 




Fig. 8. Woman's festive costume. Greek. Albania: northern Epirus. Mid-19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 965.30.1 (gift of Mrs. H.S. Megaw), and 969.3.1-2. 
The black broadcloth coat of this costume was cut according to western fashion. The decoration 
of the garment in laid and couched embroidery of gilt silver braiding is the product of 
professional craftsmen working in a "Turkish" style. 



91 




Fig. 9. Woman's sleeveless jacket. Heavy fulled woollen twill decorated with laid and couched 

work in woollen braiding. Greece: Macedonia or Thrace. 20th century. 

Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Ellard, Toronto. 

The ornamentation of this jacket shows a simplified version of the rich metallic file braiding 

characteristic of festive outfits among the upper classes throughout the Balkans. While this 

garment must have belonged to the outfit of a village woman and its ground fabric might have 

been woven at home, the braiding was done by a professional craftsman. 



92 




Fig. 10. Woman's sleeveless jacket of heavy fulled woollen twill decorated with applied 

broadcloth ornaments. Yugoslavia: Serbia, near Pozarevac. Early 20th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.502.4. 

The cut of this jacket with a narrow centre back panel and full skirt is a regional and coarse 

variant of festive jackets such as those represented by Figures 3 to 7. The decoration, however, 

may have been influenced by leather applique. 



93 




Fig. 11. Woman's jacket of white fulled woollen twill decorated with laid and couched work of 
woollen braiding. Front. Yugoslavia: Debar region, Macedonia. Late 19th century. 
New York, private collection. 

This type of jacket is common in numerous districts of Yugoslavian Macedonia, Bulgaria, and 
Albania. The cut of this garment, together with the narrow and tapered decorative sleeves, is 
reminiscent of coats from western Turkestan. This style may have reached the Balkans during 
Ottoman times as a result of new settlements of easterners and of the constant movements of 
the Turkish army. In Macedonia other elements of costume also indicate similar influences. 




Fig. 12. Back of Figure 11. 



94 



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Fig. 13. Detail of Figure 11. 



95 




Fig. 14. Woman's costume. Romania: Craiova region, Oltenia, Wallachia. Late 19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.50,a-d. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

A common feature of women's costume throughout the Balkan countries, skirt-like front and 
back aprons may reflect an ancient nomadic style coming from the Eurasian steppes during the 
early centuries of the Middle Ages. The tapestry- woven ornaments of these double aprons, 
however, stem from the decorative patterns and technique of flat-woven rugs, and may be 
associated with the kilim tradition of Ottoman times. In Oltenia, the front apron is usually long 
and narrow, while the back apron is short and full. 



96 




Fig. 15. Woman's costume. Bulgarian. Romania: village of Puntea de Greci, near Pitesti, 

Wallachia. Late 19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.42,b-e and 44. Gifts of Miss Amice Calverley. 

Among Bulgarians and Macedonians both the back and front aprons are frequently sewn 

together horizontally from two narrow widths. These aprons are either adorned in tapestry 

weave or with small brocaded ornaments. The latter may derive from Turkish cicims (brocaded 

weaves). 



97 




Fig. 16. Woman's costume. Yugoslavia: Posavina area, Croatia. Late 19th to early 20th 

century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 959.83 (gift of Mrs. Edgar J. Stone), and 972.415.16 (gift of Miss Jean 

Alexander). 

The highly stylized and diagonally composed floral sprays of the linen kerchief, executed in 

brocading with silk and cotton, evolved from Turkish ornaments. Such motifs, composed into 

squares and rectangles, were common in western Anatolia and in many regions of European 

Turkey. This costume, on the other hand, reflects the traditions of medieval and Renaissance 

Europe. 



98 




Fig. 17. Woman's costume. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments in red and some black 

cotton. Yugoslavia: Posavina area, Croatia. 1960s. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.181. 

The repeating floral sprays of this costume show close affinities with the ornaments of the 

kerchief on Figure 16. 



99 




Fig. 18 and 19. Details of man's leather coat. Turkish. Ca. 1500. According to tradition, worn 

in the battle of Mohacs (Hungary) in August 1526; then the property of the Counts Almasy, 

Castle of Borosty^nko (Bernstein/Paistum). 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 69.80.C. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

This coat is one of the few examples of early Ottoman leather garments. The well-composed 

and elaborate curwork, deriving from Turkish nomadic traditions, is of the very finest 

craftsmanship. 



100 





101 




Fig. 20. Woman's sheepskin jacket decorated with cut-out leather applique and embroidery in 

coloured silk. Transylvanian Saxonian. Romania: Beszterce (Bistrita) region, Transylvania. 

Early 20th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 971.340.24. 

The influence of Turkish leather garments such as that represented in Figures 18 and 19 can be 

demonstrated through a variety of sheepskin jackets and coats from numerous ethnographic 

regions of Transylvania. The ornaments of this example appear to be especially close to 

Ottoman models. The mode may once have been widespread among the upper classes of 

Saxonians as well as Hungarians. The well-to-do Saxon bourgeoisie maintained the tradition 

until relatively recent times. 



102 




Fig. 21. Woman's sheepskin jacket decorated with cut-out leather applique and inset mirror 

embroidery. Front. Yugoslavia: village of Dakovo, Slovenia. Ca. 1900. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.180. 

This type of decoration may have evolved from the ornaments of Turkish leather garments. In 

turn, the leatherwork has influenced the applied broadcloth motifs of fulled woollen jackets and 

mantles. The dotted applique of coats from the Turopolje region, near Zagreb (Croatia), points 

to a close relationship with this kind of leatherwork. 




Fig. 22. Back of Figure 21. 



103 




Fig. 23. Woman's sheepskin jacket decorated with cut-out leather applique and inset mirror 

work. Front. Hungarian. Romania: Kolozs (Cluj) county, Transylvania. Last quarter of 19th 

century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.248.6. 

The cut-out leather ornaments of this jacket relate to Turkish predecessors. The extensive use of 

mirror work can again best be explained in an oriental, though not necessarily Ottoman 

Turkish, context. 




Fig. 24. Back of Figure 23. 
104 




Fig. 25. Fragment of a sprang sash made of tightly spun, originally red silk. Turkish (?). Found 
in one of the crypts of the Roman Catholic church at Sarospatak, Hungary. Mid-17th century. 
Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, no accession number. Courtesy of the Hungarian 
National Museum. 

The sprang sashes discovered at Sarospatak may well have been made somewhere in the 
Ottoman Empire and acquired in Istanbul. George R^koczi I, Prince of Transylvania and Lord of 
the Castle of Sarospatak, had ordered sprang sashes several times from the Turkish capital. 



105 




Fig. 26. Sprang sash made of tightly spun, originally red silk. Turkish (?). Found in one of the 
crypts of the Roman Catholic church at Sarospatak, Hungary. Mid-17th century. 
Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, no accession number. Courtesy of the Hungarian 
National Museum. 



106 



Mosaic work and applied ornaments 

Figures 27-31 



In addition to professional embroideries executed on heavy ground fabrics 
such as velvet and broadcloth, specialized craftsmen produced a great 
variety of articles fashioned in mosaic work or decorated with applied 
ornaments. Lighter carpets and covers were often composed from intricate 
cut-outs of coloured broadcloth pieced together as mosaics. Cotton applique 
of elaborate floral motifs was especially favoured for the panels of festive 
tents. The origins of these techniques may go back to nomadic leather and 
felt work. However, in the court style of Turkey at the height of Ottoman 
power, the nomadic traditions became refined and ornate. 

While mosaic work and a taste for various applied ornaments have 
survived into our times in western and central Asia, these techniques were 
never imitated in any parts of European Turkey. Tents and carpets executed 
in this manner were ordered directly from Istanbul. 



107 




Fig. 27. Tent, exterior. Turkish. 17th century. Captured in the battle of Buda, Hungary, in 

1686. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 54.1927. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

Hungarian and Transylvanian inventories of the 17th and 18th centuries indicate that tents 

similar to this example were frequently ordered directly from Istanbul by the princes of 

Transylvania and by some of the Hungarian lords. The applied decoration on the cotton panels 

of these tents recalls an earlier tradition of leather and felt ornamentation. 



108 




Fig. 28. Interior of Figure 27. 

Courtesy of the Hungarian National Museum. 

The round table on the right is covered with a circular leather mat bearing applied leather 

decoration. The carpets represent a variety of the so-called "Transylvanian" rugs from the 17th 

and 18th centuries. 



109 




Fig. 29. Prayer carpet of broadcloth mosiac trimmed with embroidery. Card-woven silk 
fringes at each narrow end. Part of a Turkish booty. 17th century. 

Karlsruhe, Badisches Landesmuseum, D.197. Courtesy of the Badisches Landesmuseum. 
Carpets of broadcloth mosaic or kelevets were widely used in Transylvania during the 17th and 
the first half of the 18th centuries. Their design appears to be connected with the applied 
ornaments of tents and may also relate to the patterning of the so-called "Transylvanian" rugs. 



110 





Fig. 30 and 31. Details of Figure 29. 



Ill 



Domestic embroidery 

Figures 32-58 



113 




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Fig. 32. Embroidered cover. Linen tabby worked in coloured silk. Turkish. 17th century 
Royal Ontario Museum, 912x14.29. 

The large embroidered covers of the 16th and 17th centuries are usually adorned with overall 
floral ornaments. The basic construction of the design, as well as the use of such oriental 
flowers as carnations, tulips, and pomegranates, indicates that these embroideries were 
conceived as imitations of figured silks. 



114 




Fig. 33. Detail of Figure 32. 



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Fig. 34. Embroidered cover, detail. Linen tabby worked in coloured silk. Turkish. Late 16th to 

17th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.236. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

This piece is a rare example of fine and elaborate counted stitch embroidery from a period in 

which most large embroidered covers were worked entirely according to free-drawn patterns. 



116 




«Bk,;: , ?s--** 



Fig. 35. Embroidered sheet end. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 1955.423. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

The stylization of the flowers and the fine counted stitching within the freely drawn lines of the 

pattern recall Turkish needlework. If this piece was indeed embroidered in Hungary, it 

followed the Ottoman style very closely and might even have been executed by a Turkish 

embroideress. 



117 




Fig. 36. Embroidered sheet end. Hungary. Second half of 17th century. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 1955.422. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

While the design and more especially the individual flower heads and the border ornaments are 

composed a la turque, this piece is an excellent example of mixed Turkish and Italian influences 

upon Hungarian embroidery. 



118 







Fig. 37. Embroidered altar cover, detail. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 1915.122.1. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 
Museum. 

Asymmetrical flower sprays, composed from such floral motifs as carnations and pomegran- 
ates, were often emphasized in Turkey and Persia by a large curving leaf with serrated edges. 
Through Ottoman Turkish embroideries, these motifs became common in 17th-century 
Hungary and Transylvania. 



119 




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Fig. 38. Embroidered altar cover, detail. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 1955.387. Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

This example depicts another orientalizing variant of the motifs represented by Figure 37. 



120 




Fig. 39. Embroidered towel. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments in heavier wefts of white 
cotton worked in coloured silk and silver file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 18th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.91. 

Floral sprays with large serrated leaves remained common in Turkey through the 18th and first 
half of the 19th centuries. 



121 




Fig. 40. Embroidered cover, detail. Cream silk tabby worked in coloured silk with chain 

stitches. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.415.71. Gift of Miss Jean Alexander. 

Chain stitching, done with tambour needle, has been common in Turkey since at least the 18th 

century. This technique, characteristic of Chinese, Indian, and Persian needlework, may have 

become popular in the Ottoman Empire as a result of eastern influences. Some chain stitching is 

also found in the Balkan countries. The reversible stitches of Turkish embroideries, however, 

appear to have made a much greater impact upon the regional embroideries of southeastern 

Europe. 



122 




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Fig. 41. Striped silk decorated with chain-stitch embroidery in coloured silk and metallic file. 
Detail of a woman's kaftan-type coat. Turkey: vicinity of Istanbul; acquired in Uskiidar. Late 
18th to early 19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 954.60. 

Before the mid-19th century various fabrics were embroidered by the metre for garments. This 
example shows a variant with chain stitching, worked with a tambour needle. The wavy lines of 
the repeating floral meanders are composed along serrated leaves and are separated from each 
other by stripes woven in silver file. 



123 











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Fig. 42. Embroidered towel. Cotton tabby with fine bands formed by pairs of heavier cotton 

wefts; worked in coloured silk, white cotton, and silver and gilt file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 

18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.78. 

The serrated leaves of floral sprays do not always form a major part in the composition, but 

often serve as simple leaf ornaments among large flower heads. 



124 




Fig. 43. Embroidered towel, detail. Linen tabby worked in coloured silk. Reversible. Turkey. 

First half of 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 971.340.47. 

Most Turkish embroideries of the domestic type are decorated with well-balanced, 

asymmetrical floral ornaments. In the first half of the 18th century, this type of towel was 

worked in counted thread stitches within somewhat geometricized outlines. 



125 



Fig. 44. Embroidered towel, detail. Cotton tabby worked in coloured silk, gilt metallic lame, 

and silver file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 948.251.1. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

Probably because of European Baroque influences, the flower sprays of some Turkish 

embroideries tended toward naturalism at the end of the 18th century. The details of these 

examples are worked in delicate shades. Metallic thread is used for highlights and for general 

impact, rather than for the embroidery of entire motifs. The asymmetrical nature of the motifs, 

however, predominates. 



126 




Fig. 45. End of an embroidered sash. Linen tabby worked in coloured silk and silver and gilt 

file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 18th to early 19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 910x 110.38. Gift of Lillian Massey Treble. 

Large asymmetrical flower motifs often adorned the narrow ends of sashes. 



127 







Fig. 46. Embroidery patterns of Julia Redei. Hungarian. Romania: Transylvania. Early 18th 
century. After Palotay (1941). 

These Transylvanian patterns show that the asymmetrical flower sprays of Turkish needlework 
had innumerable variants among Hungarian embroideries. The oriental style first influenced 
the art of the nobility and the upper class. By the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th 
centuries, such motifs became common among the peasant embroideries of many regions. 



128 












Fig. 47. Ornaments of 17th-century Hungarian embroideries from Blenkmezo (1), 

Gomorszkdros (2), Szelecske (3), and Szdszzsombor (4). 

Floral motifs similar to those of Julia Redei's patterns were common throughout Hungary and 

Transylvania. 



129 




Fig. 48. Woman's chemise, detail of embroidered sleeve. Greece: Island of Skyros. 18th 

century. 

Benaki Museum, Athens. Courtesy of the Benaki Museum. 

The embroidered ornaments of some Greek garments recall asymmetrical Turkish flower 

sprays. The use of metallic file in a variant of patterned satin stitching is also characteristic of 

Turkish work. 



130 




Fig. 49. Embroidered towel. Linen tabby worked in coloured silk. Reversible. Turkey. First 

half of 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 973.336.1. 

Symmetrical flower ornaments are relatively rare in Turkish embroideries. They frequently 

have a spiral-like curve at the end of their stem, which gives them an unsymmetrical 

appearance. 



131 



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Fig. 50. Embroidered towel, detail. Cotton tabby worked in coloured silk and silver and gilt 

file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.501. 

Pulled thread work and elaborate drawn work were popular in 18th-century Turkish 

embroidery, but here are used only for minor details. These techniques could have reached the 

Ottoman Empire from Europe, especially from Italy. In the Balkans, however, this type of 

embroidery became popular as a result of Turkish influence. 



132 



Fig. 51. Embroidered towel end. Linen tabby with brocaded ornaments in white cotton, 

worked in coloured silk and gilt file. Reversible. Turkey. Late 18th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.89. 

In Turkey asymmetrical flower sprays were commonly composed around an almost circular 

stem of repeating floral motifs. Here the stem is formed by a sprig of hyacinth, which repeats 

below a large flower head. 



133 



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Fig. 52. Detail of an embroidered towel. Linen tabby with bands of brocaded ornaments 

formed by heavier cotton wefts. Worked in coloured silk, white cotton, silver file, and metallic 

lame. Turkey. First half of the 19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 910x 110.18. Gift of Lillian Massey Treble. 

This motif is composed of various flowers. The unity of the design is based on the repeating 

floral sprigs of the main stem, which forms a semi-circle. 



134 










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Fig. 53. Ornaments of 17th-century Hungarian embroideries from Ordongosfiizes (1), 
Melegfoldv^r (2,4), and Gomorkoros (3). 

Owing to the influence of Turkish needlework, curving floral motifs became characteristic in 
Hungary during the 17th century. Late descendants of this type of decoration are to be found in 
19th-century peasant embroidery in Transylvania. 



135 




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136 




Fig. 55. Cover for the "Lord's Table" in a Calvinist church. Hungary. Mid-17th century. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, 1955.378 Courtesy of the Hungarian National 

Museum. 

Each corner of this cover is adorned with a floral motif similar to those of Figures 51 to 54. While 

the Turkish origin of the pattern is unquestionable, close parallels did not survive among 

Ottoman Turkish embroideries. 



137 




Fig. 56. Embroidered cover for the "Lord's Table" in a Calvinist church. Worked by Suzanne 
Nagy. Hungary: city of Miskolc, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen county. 17th century. 
Not only individual motifs but also their spacing seems to derive from Turkish embroideries. 
The emphasized centre ornament of this piece recalls the decoration of turban covers. 



138 




Fig .57. Embroidered cushion cover. Linen tabby worked with two shades of red silk floss in 

patterned darning. Greece: Island of Naxos. 17th or ISth century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 974.59.9. Former collection of Mrs. F.H. Cook (Wace 1935, vol. 1: 55 

[no. 36]; vol. 2: pi. 46). 

The allover star pattern of this piece, a characteristic of Naxos embroidery, recalls the 

construction of Persian needlework. This style might have developed in the Cyclades as a result 

of oriental influences during Ottoman times but need not necessarily be connected directly to 

the impact of Persian embroideries. Related ornaments are also known from Bulgaria. 



139 




Fig. 58. Detail of Figure 57. 



140 



Funerary portraits 



Figures 59-61 



In the 16th and 17th centuries, funerary pictures were made in order to 
provide authentic portraits for funeral monuments. The deceased is usually 
depicted on his or her death-bed covered with an oriental carpet. Without 
such representations we would have only written documents to indicate the 
extent of the Turkish rug trade into eastern Europe. In addition to carpets, 
the funerary portraits show handkerchiefs and cushions adorned with 
orientalizing embroidered flower sprays and many examples of jewelled 
agrafs and arms of oriental style. The garments worn by men are also 
strongly influenced by the Ottoman mode. 




Fig. 59. Funerary picture of Count Gaspar Dleshazy. Oil on canvas. Hungary. 1648. 
Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Torteneti Kepcsamok: 30. Courtesy of the Hungarian 
National Museum. 



141 




Fig. 60. Funerary picture of Countess Illesh^zy. Oil on canvas. Hungary. 1648. 

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Torteneri Kepcsarnok: 33. Courtesy of the Hungarian 

National Museum. 




Fig. 61. Funerary picture of Count Gabriel Illeshazy. Oil on canvas. Hungary. 1662. 
Hungarian National Museum, Budapest, Torteneri Kepcsarnok: 35. Courtesy of the Hungarian 
National Museum. 



142 



Flat-woven rugs 

Figures 62-70 



143 




Fig. 62. Tapestry- woven rug. Goat-hair warp, coloured woollen weft. Romania: Wallachia. 

Ca. 1900. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.220. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

The large geometricized flower heads and their distribution over this rug are reminiscent of 

Caucasian kilims adorned with repeating palmettes. Here, however, the construction of the 

design is clearer and more organic than that of its Caucasian counterparts. Possibly related 

Caucasian examples of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which are so well known from public 

and private collections, show a highly stylized interpretation of what was once a more 

naturalistic design. The inclusion of small human figures and birds is typical of Balkan rugs, 

especially those from Wallachia and Bulgaria. 



144 




145 




Fig. 65. Tapestry-woven rug. Woollen warp, coloured woollen weft. Romania: Oltenia. Late 

19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.217. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

The general layout of the design and the technique of the weaving are typical of Oltenian kilims, 

though close parallels are also known from Poland and the Ukraine. 



146 




Detail of Figure 65 



147 




Fig. 67. Tapestry- woven rug. Hemp warp, coloured woollen weft. Ukrainian. U.S.S.R.: 

Bucovina, Moldavian S.R. Early 20th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.229. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

Rugs with tapestry-woven and weft-patterned bands are well known from many areas of 

western Asia, but are less frequent in eastern Europe. 



148 




Fig. 68. Tapestry-woven rug. Hemp warp, coloured woollen weft. Romanian. U.S.S.R.: 

Bessarabia, Moldavian S.R. Late 19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 941.22.225. Gift of Miss Amice Calverley. 

Long and narrow kilims were widely used for wall decoration in Moldavian and Bessarabian 

peasant houses. The background of these pieces is generally dark brown, against which floral 

and sometimes geometric ornaments are placed in a repeating order. 



149 




150 



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Fig. 70. Tapestry- woven shoulder bag. Woollen warp, coloured woollen weft. Greece: 

Peloponnesus. Early 20th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 947.20.17. Gift of Mrs. Homer A. Thompson. 

Just as in Turkey and other parts of western Asia, the kilim tradition of eastern Europe is 

associated with many smaller items in addition to rugs. This Greek bag exhibits a variant of 

geometricized ornaments organized into several bands. 



151 



Towels with woven ornaments 

Figures 71-85 



Tapestry-woven geometric bands, so characteristic of Turkish kilims, are also 
well known in western Anatolia and the neighbouring coastal islands as end 
decorations for towels. The fabric of most of these towels is linen, and less 
frequently cotton, but their motifs are always executed in coloured cotton. 
While red, blue, and white are the predominant colours, some examples 
have details in yellow, orange, black, and green. The tapestry- woven bands 
may occasionally be accompanied by small brocaded ornaments. In other 
cases, the entire decoration is worked in brocading. 

Among the brocaded examples, two major groups may be distinguished. 
One usually exhibits symmetrical potted flowers executed in fine cotton yarn 
across each narrow end of a lightweight cotton towel. The other group has 
much deeper ornamental panels worked in thick cotton yarn and composed 
from the vertical repeat of a series of narrow composite motifs against a 
heavier linen or cotton tabby ground. The latter group has coarser variants 
embroidered in counted cross-stitches with blue and red cotton, while other 
examples with fine reversible embroidery are worked in coloured silk on 
counted thread. 

These Turkish towels made a major impact throughout European Turkey, 
and the adjacent territories tributary to the Sultan. Related pieces were 
produced in Greece and the Greek islands, the Yugoslavian and Romanian 
provinces, Transylvania, and Hungary. Without knowing their actual 
provenance, it is often difficult to pinpoint the place of manufacture of some 
of these pieces. In Transylvania, on the other hand, a series of local groups 
evolved from the Ottoman tradition, and these can be easily distinguished 
and associated with specific regions. 



153 




Fig. 71. Ornamental towels (makramas). Linen and cotton tabby with tapestry-woven 
decoration in red, blue, and white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Late 19th 
to early 20th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.143, 144, 124. 



154 




Fig. 72. Ornamental towels (makramas). Linen and cotton tabby with tapestry- woven 
decoration in red, blue, and white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Late 19th 
to early 20th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.110, 142, 121. 



155 




Fig. 73. Ornamental towels (makramas) . Linen and cotton tabby with tapestry-woven 
decoration in red, blue, and white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Late 19th 
to early 20th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.147, 122, 120. 



156 




Fig. 74. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with tapestry- woven decoration and some brocaded 
ornaments in red, blue, and white cotton. Twisted warp fringes adorned with sequins. Turkey: 
western Anatolia or coastal islands; acquired in Bursa. Late 19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.106. 



157 




Fig. 75. Ornamental towels (makramas) . Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments in red, black, 
purple, and white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Early 20th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.494 and 972.410.97. 



158 




Fig. 76. Ornamental towels. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments of heavy red, blue, and 

white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Early 20th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.102 and 103,b. 

Textiles with heavy brocaded ornaments were characteristic in many Greek islands, especially 

Crete. Similar pieces were also used for the lower parts of the baggy legs of women's trousers. 



159 




Fig. 77. Ornamental towels. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments of heavy red, blue, and 
white cotton. Turkey: western Anatolia or coastal islands. Early 20th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 972.410.100 and 101. 



160 




c \x /•<" «&$ ••'■'v!-*v'*v'^ '^ '^ '■* ;x ;: < ■'■<■ '■'■< '■< f 
^x rax* ::<:::<:;< < '(. 



•:•.;•;•'/ «yp *</ «& «■'/ 



Fig. 78. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments against bands of 

weft-faced tabby. Romania: village of Prodanesti, county of Zsibo/Jibou, valley of River 

Szamos, Transylvania. Late 19th century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 969.144.10. 

Towels with ornaments executed in various weaving techniques are well known in 

Transylvania among the Romanian population, as well as in Hungarian villages. 

161 










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iii* i 



Fig. 79. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with brocaded ornaments against bands of 
weft-faced tabby. Romania: village of Rastolnita, county of Des/Dej, valley of River Szamos, 
Transylvania. Late 19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 969.144.12. 



162 




Fig. 80. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with tapestry-woven and brocaded decoration. 
Romania: village of Rastolnita, county of Des/Dej, valley of River Szamos, Transylvania. Late 
19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 969.144.15. 



163 






laaannmi 



1 US QJK9 

l lliii ip i i i u i i r i iii i ii i nn "' mill 







Fig. 81. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with tapestry- woven decoration and brocaded 
details. Romania: village of Buru, county of Torda/Turda, valley of River Aranyos, 
Transylvania. Late 19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 969.144.7. 



164 



~Y< JL*J-t 




Fig. 82. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with tapestry- woven and brocaded decoration. 
Romania: village of Buru, county of Torda/Turda, valley of River Aranyos, Transylvania. Late 
19th century. 
Royal Ontario Museum, 969.144.8. 



165 




Fig. 83. Ornamental towel. Cotton tabby with bands of weft-faced tabby and looped weave 

(weft). Hungarian. Romania: town of Szek, Kolozs/Cluj county, Transylvania. Late 19th 

century. 

Royal Ontario Museum, 971.340.78. 



166 




Fig. 84. Interior of the church of Voronet. Romania: northern Moldavia (Bucovina) 
The iconostasis is adorned with ornamental towels. 
Photo: Miss Amice Calverley, 1930s. 



167 




Fig. 85. Interior of a peasant house from Vistea. Romania: Brasso/Brasov district, Transyl- 
vania. First half of 20th century. 
Bucharest, Museum of Folk Art, permanent display from 1960s. 



168 




ISBN 0-88854-258-5 
ISSN 0316-1269